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Eurasian Cultural Traditions 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. PowerPoint Presentation
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Eurasian Cultural Traditions 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.

Eurasian Cultural Traditions 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.

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Eurasian Cultural Traditions 500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.

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  1. Eurasian Cultural Traditions500 B.C.E.-500 C.E. • Chapter 5 Lecture • A.P. Lecture • Ways of the World

  2. Today’s Objective... • Today we will analyze the Eurasian Cultural Traditions (500 B.C.E.-500 C.E.) and the major religions using this lecture. 2

  3. Lets Sing!!! • Dynasty song! We get to sing!!! Yay!

  4. Chinese Religions • Confucianism • A religion based on the philosophy of Confucius in China who served as an advisor to rulers. • He lived in China during a time of moral lax. • His writings deal primarily with individual morality and ethics, and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers. • Confucianism is primarily an ethical system • This philosophy provided a hierarchy where one knew their place in the world. • Family=country • **Generally new religions will emerge in times of chaos or uncertainty. Why? 4

  5. Daoism • Dao can be translated to “the path” or “the way” • This philosophy stresses balance and harmony in the universe • Leave the world as you found it. • Eliminate want and focus on need. • There is no hierarchy as in Confucianism The Ying and Yang symbol demonstrates the female and male roles in the natural order.

  6. Aryan Migrations • 1600 – 1000 BCE • Large, light-skinned • Nomadic horseman from central Asia (S. Russia) • Brought: • Herding • Oral tradition in Sanskrit • Aryan Gods • 4 Classes • Harappan Civilization • 2500 – 1600 BCE • Indus River Valley • Dravidian (dark-skinned) • Herded cattle and farmed • Worshipped fertility gods • Ritualized bathing pools • Houses showed evidence of distinct class divisions Blend of Dravidian and Aryan influences + Called the “Vedic Age” • Classical Hinduism • By 500 BCE (start of the Classical Era) • Oral traditions written down in the Vedas • 4 Varnas = Castes and their (Dharma) • Brahmin = Priests (learn scriptures) • Kshatriyas = Warrior/Aristocrats (govern and fight) • Vaishyas = Merchants (to sell goods/work) • Shudras = Peasants (to serve) • --------------------------------------------------------- • UNTOUCHABLES • Jati = Sub-castes that further divide the varnas • Samsara = reincarnation (cyclical existence of the soul) • Dharma = duty • Karma = good and bad deeds • Moksha = Salvation or release fron the cycle of Samsara = 6

  7. Hinduism • Polytheistic religion made of hundreds of gods, originated in India around 1500 b.c.e • Three main deities are Shiva the destroyer, Vishnu the preserver, and Brahma the creator, all are embodied in Shiva. • Reincarnation is a principle of Hinduism in which a persons soul is born again. 7

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  9. The Story of the Buddha • The Founder = Siddhartha Gautama • Born in 563 B.C.E. in foothills of Himalayas a Kshatriya (warrior/aristocrat) family • Father was determined that his son would experience only happiness • Gautama lived a pampered life in beautiful parks and palaces • Gautama grew tired of his comfortable life and went out into the world to find the answer.. 9

  10. Buddha Story (cont). • Gautama met a series of people who taught him that: • Some men become monks, withdraw from the active daily life, and lead holy lives seeking spirituality • Gautama left his wife, family, and home to be a holy man, seeking spiritual enlightenment and the explanation for suffering.. 10

  11. Buddhism Story (cont.) • Nothing was working for Siddhartha • Decided to meditate under a tree to find the answer 11

  12. The Buddha • Meditated for 49 days • Demons and spirits tempted him • In the end, Siddhartha understood the problem of suffering & how to solve it • Siddhartha became enlightened, aka “The Buddha” 12

  13. The Four Noble Truths • All life involves suffering • Desire is the cause of suffering • Elimination of desire brings an end to suffering • A disciplined life following the Noble Eightfold Path eliminates desire.. 13

  14. The Noble 8-Fold Path • RIGHT __________ • VIEWS (Belief) • ASPIRATIONS (Resolve) • SPEECH • CONDUCT (Behavior) • LIVELIHOOD (Occupation) • EFFORT • MINDFULNESS (Meditation) • CONTEMPLATION.. 14

  15. Nirvana • Definition • A state of perfect spiritual independence • Enlightenment • Escape from reincarnation • Parallels to other religions • Similar to Moksha (Hinduism) • Similar to reaching Heaven (Christianity).. 15

  16. Buddhist Doctrine (cont.) • Buddhism promotes a life of: • Moderation • Quiet Contemplation • Self Control • Buddhism rejected: • Brahmins (Priests) • Castes and jati • Vedic gods of Hinduism.. 16

  17. Who was attracted to Buddhism? • Hindus from low castes • Merchants especially! Why merchants? • Had high wealth but low status in Hindu.. 17

  18. Ways Buddhism Spread • Merchants spread it via trade • Siddhartha preached & won converts • Monks spread the word by preaching.. 18

  19. Buddhism Flourished • Spread throughout SE Asia • Spread throughout Central Asia via the Silk Road • Reached China via the Silk Road.. 19

  20. Hinduism Adapted to Regain Appeal in India • Less emphasis on Brahmins • Bhagavad Gita offered salvation to the faithful, even if they are not priests • Hinduism replaced Buddhism as the most popular religion in India.. 20

  21. Sects of Buddhism • Theravada “The Lesser Vehicle” • Earlier form, stricter, no gods • Popular but not much easier than Hindu • Mahayana “The Greater Vehicle” (Developed Between 3rd and 1st Centuries) • 3 Changes: • Buddha worshipped as a God • Boddhisatvas = individuals who reached Nirvana but remained behind to help others get there • Monasteries granted salvation for large donations 21

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  23. Zoroaster • Zoroastrianism • Hebrews • Judaism • Jesus of Nazareth • Christianity Compare the 3 Monotheistic Religion 23