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  1. Modifying Reading and Writing Workshop in Self-Contained and CTT Settings using Our Data to Help All Our Kids Meet the Levels of the Common Core

  2. MacBeth • Macbeth, Banquo and the Weird Sisters. In 'From the Bells to King Arthur', 1897.

  3. Shifts

  4. Reading and Writing Workshop cannot do everything. • Students need to come to this work with the ability to read independently for at least five minutes. If they can’t, there can be several issues at play. • Kids might not have the decoding skills to read texts on their own. In this case, kids will need word work. Some turn to programs like Wilson for this kind of intervention. • Some classroom communities do not have the structures that support reading. Establishing specific school-wide practice that is flexible enough to accommodate kids with disabilities is critical here. No teaching is effective without this foundation. • Be truly sensitive to each disability in your classroom. It is true that some disabilities prevent children from doing specific tasks or engaging in certain cognitive processes. • Expect that, but also expect that you can create ways to lead students into this work. For example, know that kids with speech difficulties will not have high accuracy scores on a “running record”. You’ll have to move them up levels relying on things other than accuracy, but you can support them in other activities that support their speech production alongside the work that you are already doing to strengthen comprehension. • The final section lists different activities, approaches, and resources that you can use with students in your classroom

  5. When seeking to construct your workshops this year, if you serve any students with disabilities there are four things that you will want to consider: • Which students are present in my class, what are they able to do well, and what specific learning needs do they have? • What components of Universal Design for Learning are already embedded into the units of study and how will I move through the units given the specific needs of my learners? • What are the most common student disabilities and what are some ways that I can address them? • What additional accommodations will I (my grade team, department) make to my classroom/grade/school in order to match the learning needs of my specific students? • What additional modifications and instructional choices will I make to reading and writing workshop in order to meet the learning needs of my specific students?

  6. Language and Speech Disabilities • To say that certain students contend with “language and speech disabilities” is a broad way to describe hundreds possible of conditions. These are among the most common of all learning disabilities, and they have a profound impact on all of the subjects, because most learning is based on language -- how it is received and how it is communicated. When students live with these disabilities, some things that you might notice in your classroom are: • Students exhibit difficulty reading, spelling, writing, and speaking. • Students might have difficulty understanding what is heard or read. • Students might have a hard time recalling or understanding information previously heard or read. • Students might have difficulty following instructions or understanding explanations. • Students could face difficulty expressing themselves.

  7. Star Wars •

  8. Comprehension • Listening • Monitoring • Synthesis • Knowing • Relating • Envisionment

  9. Lyrics • •

  10. Question • • Jeopardy

  11. Questions

  12. Word study • Put words in a sort and categorize them • Prefixes • Suffixes • Ending

  13. Description words

  14. Description Word

  15. Looney Tones •

  16. Richard Allington • Exemplary Teaching is responsive to children’s needs, not regurgitation of a common script. In the end, it will become clearer that there are no proven problems just schools where we find more expert teachers – teachers who need no script to tell them what to do.

  17. Richard Allingtons Six T’s

  18. Data • IEP • Running Record • Talk • Post Its • Notebook • Writing – On Demand and notebooks- content area • Exams • Graphic Organizers

  19. UDLUniversal Design for Learning • UDL addresses the three learning networks within a broadly defined concept of curriculum that includes goals, materials, methods, and assessment (Hitchcock et al., 2005). According to the following three UDL principles, each area of the curriculum should provide multiple, varied, and flexible options for representation, expression, and engagement: • Principle 1: Provide multiple means of representation (recognition network). • Principle 2: Provide multiple means of action and expression (strategic network). • Principle 3: Provide multiple means of engagement (affective network).

  20. The four interrelated components of the UDL curriculum require further explanation. • Goals are typically described as learning expectations. They represent the knowledge, concepts, and skills students need to master and are usually aligned to state standards. Recent national discussions about Common Core Standards have heightened the critical importance of linking goals in Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) with state standards and classroom expectations

  21. If there are students in your room with language and speech disabilities, you will want to make sure that you create opportunities for them to: • Choose books that are challenging and rewarding. Be considerate of the subject matter, the reading level, and of how your introduce books to students. Set challenges and goals that are worthy, realistic and attainable. Instead of setting large goals with students, set a series of small goals that students can realize at the end of a day or end of a period. • Talk lots about things that you are learning together. Allow students time after the lesson to summarize the day’s learning, directions, and their plans for independent work. Give students the opportunities to work with multiple partners who might say things differently. Make sure that important ideas are not only said out loud, but that they are represented in writing and visually on your classroom walls in a way where students can access them continually.

  22. Read Aloud • Use time to gather their thoughts before they are asked to speak, perform, or write for an audience. Even if that audience is only you. • Use technology like word processors, smartphones, and tablets to record ideas that can be heard, viewed, or written later. • Because reading and writing are just two of many other ways to communicate, privileging them in a classroom does put some students at a disadvantage. There are a few simple physical accommodations that you can make to your classroom and to your methodology that will allow students to work more productively. Incorporating these moves into your routine can make a world of difference.

  23. Allowing longer oral response time is critical. Many teachers wait no more than three seconds before intervening orally. Allowing students at least 10 seconds gives them time to process and to form words. Model good speech production. You are teaching, even when there is not a formal lesson. Model good speaking by speaking evenly. Talk about the ways that your voice changes and why. Example: “Students, I’m really excited about our trip today. When I get excited, my voice elevates and my words go faster. Do you notice the difference? You can hear the excitement.” Provide seating around peers with good speech production. Kids learn a lot from peers. Be deliberate in your seating. Don’t just seat student for “behavior”. Seat students near peers that have something to teach. You can even talk to students about what you hope they will learn from each other. Don’t just correct students’ language use. Compliment effective use of language and production of speech sounds in order to reinforce and encourage its continued use. Work to reduce the amount of background noise in the classroom. Paper on walls dampens sound. Hang lots of student work. Use headphones for students that are easily influenced by sound.

  24. Varying Methods: As you read the curricular suggestions in the calendars. Each lesson does not have to be stated. We encourage you to vary your methods across each instructional week. ● Direct instruction - A mini lesson where you might explain the concept directly to students. ● Demonstration - A mini lesson where you supplement your explanation with clear demonstration. ● Read-Aloud/Close Reading - A lesson that hinges on the clear demonstration of a critical reading skill ● Shared Experience - A mini lesson that encourages students to do what you do as you do it so that they can grow to eventually do that work independently. ● Dramatization - A mini lesson that actively brings your concept to life. ● Inquiry - A mini lesson where you can engage kids in questioning that lead to deeper understanding. ● Document or Artifact Study - An opportunity for kids to study a physical object in order to build their understanding of a concept.

  25. Methods • Methods are generally defined as the instructional strategies used by educators to support student learning. Methods should be evidence-based and supported by an analysis of learner variability. UDL methods are flexible and adjusted through consistent monitoring of student progress.

  26. Materials • Materials are the media used to present content and demonstrate learning. UDL materials offer multiple media options and include embedded supports.

  27. Assessment • Assessment within the UDL framework refers to the process of gathering information about a learner's progress using a variety of methods and materials. UDL assessments are particularly concerned with accurately measuring learner knowledge, skills, and engagement by maintaining construct relevance and reducing or eliminating irrelevant or distracting elements that interfere with the assessment's validity.

  28. Case 1: Adam • After Adam contracted meningitis at the age of 4 years, he was left with a severe bilateral hearing loss. Because of the rich background and early learning support provided by his parents, he was already reading at a third-grade level when he entered kindergarten. He is very interested in dinosaurs and art, and he wants to be an astronaut. Katherine's focus is on ensuring that his articulation skills do not deteriorate, teaching him to use his residual hearing as much as possible, and developing communication strategies that allow him to participate fully in the general education classroom. • After Katherine and the teacher completed a UDL Class Profile and Curriculum Barrier Analysis, they included these options in the kindergarten curriculum to support and scaffold Adam's learning:  

  29. Multiple means of representation: • Video captioning and video description (i.e., adding text or audio to describe what happens in a video to support access by persons with visual difficulties); highlighted vocabulary in subject matter content, such as science and social studies materials; main ideas offered through graphic organizers; vocal directions matched with printed and visual/image representations (e.g., pictured directions in learning centers); pre-teaching opportunities for new vocabulary and concepts; color shading used for emphasis

  30. Multiple means of action and expression: • Models of expert performance provided using differing approaches; paired voice with visual displays; outlines of subject matter content; use of Interactives

  31. Multiple means of engagement: • Choice of topics for projects (including dinosaurs and astronauts, as appropriate); simple self-monitoring checklists in learning centers for students to self-assess completion and accuracy; consistent attention-getting techniques that use visual as well as auditory cues; paired peers to share small-group activities

  32. Recognition Networks The "what" of learning How we gather facts and categorize what we see, hear, and read. Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks. Present information and content in different ways More ways to provide - Multiple Means of Representation Strategic Networks The "how" of learning- Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and express our ideas. Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasks. - Differentiate the ways that students can express what they know More ways to provide- Multiple Means of Action and Expression Affective Networks The "why" of learning - How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. These are affective dimensions. Stimulate interest and motivation for learning More ways to provide - Multiple Means of Engagement

  33. What does the data say • What are your students modifications • What level are you as a reader and what should you be learner as a reader • Accuracy, Fluency • Comprehension retell What are you missing • Qualities of Good Writing • Stamina and Volume • Depth of Understanding • Levels

  34. Lets Look at Some data • Looking at an IEP • An IEP ensures provision of • appropriate learning opportunities, • accommodations, adaptations, specialized services, and • supports to meet a student’s unique needs related to his/her disability. 

  35. If you notice: • Readers in complex texts who need support with synthesis: scan both pages, look for features, ask yourself, “What is this mostly about?” and create your own subheading. • Readers in easier texts who need support with synthesis: Think across pages, “How does this page fit with the page before it?” Or, create a heading after every few pages to help you hold onto what you are learning.

  36. Running Records and Levels

  37. 1. Show and Tell • How many of us say that we learn best by seeing something rather than hearing about it? Modeling for students is a cornerstone of scaffolding in my experience. Have you ever interrupted someone with “just show me!” while they were in the middle of explaining to you how to do something? Every chance you have, show or demonstrate to students exactly what they are expected to do. • Try the fish bowl activity, where a small group in the center are circled by the class as the group in the middle, or fishbowl, engage in an activity, modeling how it’s done for the larger group. • Always show students the outcome or product before they do it. If a teacher assigns a persuasive essay or inquiry-based science project, a model should be presented side-by-side with a criteria chart or rubric. You can guide students through each step of the process, model in-hand of the finished product. • Use think alouds, which will allow you to model your thought process as you: read a text, solve a problem, or design a project. Remember that children’s cognitive abilities are still in development so opportunities for them to see developed, critical thinking are essential.

  38. #2. Tap into Prior Knowledge • Ask students to share their own experiences, hunches, and ideas about the content or concept of study and have them relate and connect it to their own lives. Sometimes you may have to offer hints and suggestions, leading them to the connections a bit, but once they get there, they will grasp it as their own. • Launching the learning in your classroom from the prior knowledge of your students, and using this as a framework for future lessons is not only a scaffolding technique, many would agree it’s just plain good teaching.

  39. #3. Give Time to Talk • All learners need time to process new ideas and information. They also need time to verbally make sense of and articulate their learning with the community of learners who are also engaged in the same experience and journey. As we all know, structured discussions really work best with children regardless of their level of maturation. If you aren’t weaving in think-pair-share, turn-and-talk, triad teams or some other structured talking time throughout the lesson, you should begin including this crucial strategy on a regular basis.

  40. #4. Pre-Teach Vocabulary • Sometimes referred to as frontloading vocabulary, this is a strategy that we teachers don’t use enough. Many of us, myself included, are guilty of sending students all alone down the bumpy, muddy path known as Challenging Text – a road booby trapped with difficult vocabulary. We send them ill prepared and then we are often shocked when they: a) lose interest b) create a ruckus c) fall asleep. • Pre-teaching vocabulary doesn’t mean pulling a dozen words from the chapter and having kids look up definitions and write them out (we all know how this will go. Again, see above a, b, and c). Instead, introduce the words to kids in photos, and in context to things they know and are interested in. Use analogies, metaphors and invite students to create a symbol or drawing for each word and give time for discussion of the words (small and whole groups). Not until they’ve done all this should the dictionaries come out. And the dictionaries will be used only to compare with those definitions they’ve already discovered on their own. .

  41. Vocabulary • With the dozen or so words “frontloaded,” students are ready, you as their guide, to tackle that challenging text

  42. #5. Use Visual Aids • Graphic organizers, pictures, and charts can all serve as scaffolding tools. Graphic organizers are very specific in that they help kids visually represent their ideas, organize information, and grasp concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect. • A graphic organizer shouldn’t be The Product, but rather it’s a scaffolding tool that helps guide and shape the student’s thinking so that they can apply it. Some students can dive right into the discussion, or writing an essay, or synthesizing several different hypotheses without using a graphic organizer of some sort, but many of our students benefit from using them with a difficult reading or challenging new information. Think of graphic organizers as training wheels; they are temporary and meant to be removed.

  43. Cartoon

  44. #6. Pause, Ask Questions, Pause, Review • This is a wonderful way to check for understanding while students read a chunk of difficult text or learn a new concept or content. Here’s how this strategy works: a new idea from discussion or the reading is shared, then pause (providing think time), then ask a strategic question, pausing again. By strategic, you need to design them ahead of time, make sure they are specific, guiding and open-ended questions. (Great questions fail without giving think time for responses so hold out during that Uncomfortable Silence.) Keep kids engaged as active listeners by calling on someone to “give the gist” of what was just discussed / discovered / questioned. If the class seems stuck by the questions, provide an opportunity for students to discuss it with a neighbor

  45. Liberty Kids • School House Rock

  46. Recipe • Make Chocolate puddng

  47. Assessing Readers Who Seem to Be Really Struggling with Print • For students not yet focusing on the text: • a teacher may ask the student to ‘read’ a familiar story in order to determine the student’s sense of story, and/or knowledge of how books go • a teacher may informally interview the student about the kinds of books the student is interested in, the kinds of literacy experiences the student has had in the past • a teacher may observe to watch the student’s level of engagement with texts, both familiar and unfamiliar • a teacher may assess the student’s knowledge of concepts about print and book handling • a teacher may ‘co-read’ a book with a student and then ask the student to retell the story.