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  1. Wind and Biomass Energy Potentials in North Carolina MeghaKarmalkar, Megan Colonel, Gabe Hobson, Nina Rajagopalan, Alex Pasquini methods abstract results and analysis The increasing demand for electricity in North Carolina, the majority of which is currently produced by fossil fuels, has resulted in an increasing demand in the renewable energy sector. North Carolina's topography is extremely varied, giving the state varying suitable conditions for the implementation of wind farms.  In most cases, wind energy has the most potential in the mountains, along the coastline, and in off-shore locations, where the strongest and most constant winds occur. Additionally, biomass resources in North Carolina also have the potential to satisfy some of the demand for renewable electricity. Biomass resources include, agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, and land and aquatic crops. A viable option for biomass energy generation is landfill methane projects. Decomposing organic matter in landfills produces methane gas that can be converted into heat, steam, or electricity. Expanding both the wind and biomass energy industries creates jobs, decreases environmental pollution, effectively uses financial resources, and is sustainable. The goal of this project was to estimate how many people in NC can be serviced using wind and biomass energy based on possible locations of the generators and their compatibility with the energy grid. The study confirmed that wind and biomass energy can fuel a significant amount of the deficit energy demand in NC. • In order to evaluate the electricity needs of NC in the future we estimated the amount of electricity that will be demanded in 2030. To do this we multiplied the ratio of the projected population in 2030 in NC to the estimated population in 2008 in NC (so that the ratio is >1) and multiplied the ratio times the 2008 NC electricity sales. This gave us the energy demand expected in 2030 with the assumption that electricity demand is a function of total population. The current electricity production within the state was then subtracted from the estimated demand to get a deficit of 47.196023 TWh/yr. That is: • (2030 population projection/2008 population estimate)*2008 electricity sales (in MWh/yr) - 2008 electricity Production= 47.196023 TWh/year deficit between 2008 and 2030 • Formingtheanalysismap: • Base map: North Carolina Map (GIS Shapefile, UNC Libraries) • Wind Farm Location Potential in NC (GIS Shapefile, UNC Libraries) • Landfill Location Potential in NC (GIS Shapefile, MapCruzin) • Transmission Lines to show the Energy Grid • Howmuchenergydoeseachsource produce? • Wind (UNC Coastal Wind Feasibility Study, EnergyNCNet): • Off-Shore: • 909 square miles with capacity factor >40% – 4,949 x 3.6MW = 17.8 GW – Average output 7,572 MW • On-Shore: • 25 square miles with capacity factor 35–40% •         – 128 x 3.6MW = 497 MW • – Average output 186 MW • Mountains: • 1.5MW to 3.6 MW capacity • -- 500-600 average homes per year • Biomass/Landfill: • 3-8 MW/ generator  --Generators at landfill-gas sites are very reliable • and operate almost year-round --A 6-megawatt plant would produce • approximately 47 million KW hours/per year • (3,200 homes) • A concern of renewable energy is whether or not the source will connect to the existing energy grid, or if new utility lines will have to be created. However, large scale wind turbines and biomass generators are, or can be, tied directly into the utility grid and can be used to provide electrical power for entire communities and municipalities. introduction • We have selected this research topic in light of the growing demand for energy and the need for renewable energy sources. • The study: • How many people in North Carolina can be serviced using wind energy based on possible locations of wind farms and the layout of the energy grid? Additionally, for those that cannot use wind energy for electricity, are landfill gas power plants feasible alternatives? How can a combination of wind and landfill gas power plants be implemented to create a system for renewable energy? • Hypothesis: •  A combination of wind and biomass energy can fuel a significant portion of the deficit energy demand in North Carolina areas of study conclusions A new study out of UNC Chapel Hill discusses how North Carolina could have 100% of its power coming from off-shore wind turbines. These off-shore turbines have no significant human or environmental impacts (Clean Technica). Even more importantly, North Carolinians actually want wind power. Though the North Carolina Ridge Law, which is intended to protect mountainous areas from unsightly development, has been a barrier to the development of wind power in North Carolina, a recent study at Appalachian State found that Western residents of NC favor the growth of the wind energy industry in The Appalachian Mountains (wind.appstate), rather than continue to prohibit development on mountain ranges. Legend Landfill locations Wind Farm locations