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  1. Unit 6 - Chapter 9, Part 1 Non-Renewable Energy Sources David Rude

  2. Outline • 9.1 Major Energy Sources • 9.2 Resources and Reserves • 9.3 Fossil-Fuel Formation • 9.4 Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Case Study: ANWR

  3. Energy Sources • Nonrenewable energy sources • Resources that are being used faster than can be replenished. • Fossil Fuels: Coal, oil, and natural gas • Renewable energy sources • Replenish themselves or are continuously present as a feature of the environment. • Biomass, hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, tidal

  4. Energy Sources All energy sources

  5. Table 09_01

  6. Resources and Reserves • Resource • Naturally occurring substance of use to humans • Can potentially be extracted using current technology • Reserve is • Known deposit that can be extracted profitably • Using current technology • Under prevailing economic conditions • An economic idea • Reserves are smaller than resources

  7. Resources and Reserves • Reserve levels change • As technology advances • New discoveries are made • Economic conditions vary • A Reserve won’t be used if • Cost of removing and processing is higher than market value • Energy used to produce and transport is greater than potential energy

  8. Resources and Reserves

  9. Resources and Reserves • Oil example • Discovery in 1859 expanded estimated amount on earth • New deposits discovered • Better drilling led to deeper deposits • Offshore drilling discovered new • Much not available at first • Advances in drilling and extraction increase reserves • New oil from old exhausted wells

  10. Figure 09_02

  11. Fossil Fuel Formation • Fossil fuels • Remains of once-living organisms • Preserved and altered as a result of geologic forces • Types • Coal • Oil • Natural gas

  12. Fossil Fuel Formation • Coal • 300 million years ago • Lots of tropical freshwater swamps • Rapid plant growth • Plant material began collecting underwater inhibiting decay • Spongy mass of organic material formed (peat)

  13. Fossil Fuel Formation • Coal (continued) • Geological changes • Some deposits covered by seas and sediment. • Pressure and heat over time transformed organic matter into coal • Several different qualities of coal • Depending on amount of time • Now found in most parts of the world

  14. 9.3 Fossil-Fuel Formation Recoverable coal reserves of the world 2004

  15. Fossil Fuel Formation • Oil and natural gas • Probably originated from microscopic marine organisms • Accumulated on the ocean floor • Were covered by sediments. • Muddy rock gradually formed shale containing dispersed oil. • Under right conditions oil pools form • Impermeable cap rock over sandstone shale • Water and gas force out of shale • More likely if rock layers were folded • Natural gas often forms on top of oil.

  16. 9.3 Fossil-Fuel Formation Crude oil and natural gas pool

  17. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Coal is most abundant fossil fuel • Primarily used for generating electricity • Four categories • Lignite • High moisture, low energy, crumbly, least desirable form • Mostly used in Europe • Sub-bituminous (sub bī-TWO-mĭn-us) • Lower moisture, higher carbon than lignite. • Electric power plants.

  18. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Bituminous (bī-TWO-mĭn-us) • Low moisture, high carbon content • Most widely used • Easy to mine • Most abundant • Supplies 20% of world’s energy needs • Several uses • Used in power plants • Steel • Know this one for the test

  19. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Anthracite (AN-thra-site) • Highest carbon content • Relatively rare. • Primarily used • Heating buildings • Specialty uses.

  20. Figure 09_03

  21. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Two extraction methods • Surface mining (strip mining) • Process of removing material on top of a vein • Overburden: Material on top of a vein of coal • Used when overburden is less than 100 meters (328 feet) • Most efficient • 60% of coal mining in US today

  22. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Underground mining • Minimizes surface disturbance • Costly and dangerous • Many miners suffer from black lung disease • Respiratory condition from the accumulation of fine coal-dust particles in the lungs

  23. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Underground mining

  24. 9.4 Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Underground mining

  25. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Environmental issues with coal • Bulky and takes energy to transport • Landscape disturbance • Dust pollution • Both mining and transport • Acid mine drainage • Plants contain sulfur, so lots of sulfur in coal • Gets into streams and groundwater • Acid deposition • Air pollutant when burned • Increased CO2

  26. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Acid mine drainage

  27. Figure 09_09A

  28. Figure 09_09B

  29. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Surface-mine reclamation

  30. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Oil • Desirable characteristics • Causes less environmental damage than coal • More concentrated source of energy than coal • Burns cleaner • Easily transported through pipelines • These qualities make it ideal for automobile use • Difficult to find

  31. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Primary Recovery methods • With great enough water or gas pressure • Oil is forced to surface when a well is drilled • Low water and gas pressure • Oil is pumped to the surface • 5–30% of the oil is extracted • Depends on • Viscosity • Geological characteristics

  32. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Secondary Recovery • Water or gas pumped into well • Drives oil out of rock pores • Allows up to 40% of oil to be extracted • Tertiary Recovery • Steam is pumped into a well • Low the viscosity of the oil • Aggressive pumping of gas or chemicals into a well • These methods are • Expensive • Only used with high oil prices

  33. Figure 09_13

  34. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Offshore drilling

  35. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Shale Oil • Oil found in sedimentary rock • Formed millions of years ago • From silt and organic debris deposited on lake and sea floors • Shale oil extraction methods) • Mined • Heated to a high temperature (retorting) • Liquid separated and collected

  36. Major Process Steps in Mining and Surface Retorting Mining and Crushing Retorting Oil upgrading Oil to refinery Reclamation Spent shale disposal on-site

  37. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Alternative experimental process • Heat oil shale while underground • Pumping to surface. • Largest deposits in United States • Green River Formation • Portions of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. • Estimates at 1.2 to 1.8 trillion barrels • Not all recoverable with present methods • Moderate estimate: 800 billion barrels • 3xs greater than Saudi Arabia

  38. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Processing Crude Oil • Heated in distillation tower • “Cracked” • Heat, pressure and catalysts • Produces a higher percentage of volatile chemicals • Gasoline • Solvents • Multiple products can be produced from a single barrel of crude oil

  39. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels Processing crude oil

  40. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Environmental issues • Leaks & Spills associated with transportation • Accidental spills only about 1/3 from shipping • 60% from routine shipping operations

  41. Figure 09_17

  42. Issues Related to the Use of Fossil Fuels • Natural Gas • Extraction methods similar to those used for oil • It is hard to transport • In many places is burned off at oil fields • New transportation methods are being developed • Liquefaction at -126o F (1/600 volume of gas) • Public concern about safety of LNG loading facilities • Located off shore • Least environmentally damaging fossil fuel • Causes almost no air pollution

  43. Case Study: ANWRThe True Cost of Oil • Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) • Source of controversy for many years • Major players • Environmentalists • Want no change • State of Alaska • Source of revenue • Residents receive dividend payments from oil