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Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular System

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  1. Cardiovascular System Heart

  2. Introduction of Cardiovascular Sytem • Consists of; • Blood • Heart • Blood Vessels

  3. Location of Heart • Heart lies between the lungs in the mediastinum.

  4. Location of Heart • Two-thirds of its mass is to the left of the midline

  5. Location of Heart • Precordium – The area of the chest anterior to the heart

  6. Location of Heart • Lies between the vertebral column and the sternum

  7. Structure and Function of Heart • Pericardium • Layers of the Heart Wall

  8. Pericardium • The heart is enclosed and held in place by the pericardium

  9. Pericardium • Consists of; • Fibrous pericardium (outer) • Serous pericardium (inner)

  10. Pericardium • Fibrous pericardium – anchors the heart in the mediastinum

  11. Pericardium • Serous pericardium composed of; • Parietal layer • Visceral layer

  12. Pericardium • Pericardial cavity – a space between the parietal and visceral layers filled with pericardial fluid

  13. Layer of the Heart • Epicardium • Myocardium • Endocardium

  14. Epicardium • Consists of the visceral layer of pericardium and connective tissue (adipose)

  15. Myocardium • Composed of cardiac muscle

  16. Myocardium • The cells are branched, involuntary, and have one nucleus

  17. Myocardium • The cells are connected by intercalated discs, which have gap junctions that allow ions to flow in between cells during depolarization

  18. Endocardium • Lines the chambers and covers the connective tissue in the heart valves

  19. Endocardium • It consists of endothelium

  20. Chambers of the Heart • Right Atrium • Right Ventricle • Left Atrium • Left Ventricle

  21. Chambers of the Heart • On the surface of the heart are auricles and sulci

  22. Chambers of the Heart • Auricles – small pouches on the anterior surface of each atrium

  23. Chambers of the Heart • Sulci – Are grooves that contain coronary arteries and fat and separate the chambers

  24. Right Atrium • The right atrium receives systemic venous blood from; • Superior Vena Cava • Inferior Vena Cava • Coronary sinus

  25. Right Atrium • The atrium receives blood low in O2 and high in CO2

  26. Right Atrium • Interatrial septum - separates the right and left atria

  27. Right Atrium • Fossa ovalis – an oval depression in the interatrial septum; it is a remnant of the foramen ovale

  28. Right Atrium • Tricuspid Valve – Blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through here

  29. Right Ventricle • Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart

  30. Right Ventricle • Pulmonary semilunar valve - Blood passes from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk via this valve

  31. Left Atrium • Receives pulmonary venous blood from the pulmonary veins which is rich in oxygen and low in CO2

  32. Left Atrium • Mitral Valve – Blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle via this valve