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Exploration AND exploitation

Exploration AND exploitation

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Exploration AND exploitation

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  1. ExplorationANDexploitation

  2. Trailblazers

  3. The Silk Road • In the second century bce, caravans began traveling a 4,000 mile route linking Southeast Asia with the West. • Silk carried along this route made its way to Rome • In both directions, various political, social, religious, and artistic ideas flowed. • Ghengis Khan and the Mongols gained control of the region by the 13th century

  4. The Silk Road

  5. In 1271 three Venetian merchants left in search of the wealth of the East

  6. 17 year-old Marco Polo and his father and his uncle were gone for 24 years

  7. They found great civilizations in the East -- far more advanced than those in Europe

  8. with different ways of life

  9. based on different value systems

  10. and different philosophies

  11. After travelling through India, Marco Polo returned to Venice in 1295

  12. Marco Polo described these cultures in his Book of Marvels

  13. Although his stories of magnificent Eastern civilizations were met with skepticism, the account of his travels would be read all over Europe, inspiring the curious and adventurous

  14. Ibn Battuta1304-c.1368 or 1377 • Born in Morocco, Ibn Battuta went on hajj in 1325 and continued traveling, eventually covering about 75,000 miles over the length and breadth of the Muslim world, and beyond (about 44 modern countries). • His journeys and observations are recorded in A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihlaor Journey

  15. Map of Ibn Battuta’s Travels

  16. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644

  17. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 • Founded by Chu Yuan-chang, a peasant who had been a Buddhist monk, a bandit leader and a rebel general – Emperor Hong Wu • Last native imperial dynasty in Chinese history • Re-adopted civil-service examination system • One of China’s most prosperous periods: agricultural revolution, reforestation, manufacturing and urbanization CHU YUAN-CHANG (1328-1398). Ming Emperor. Chinese silk scroll painting

  18. Age of Exploration • The Ming Dynasty, under the naval leadership of Zheng He, was noted for its sea explorations and extensive trade from Africa to Southeast Asia • Greatest naval power in world in 15th c. • However, scholars convinced the Emperor in 1435 that taste for exotic wares would cause decline of dynasty • Trade and maritime expansion was greatly contracted Zheng He

  19. Zheng-He’s Expeditions Zheng Hesailed from China to many places throughout South Pacific, Indian Ocean, Taiwan, Persian Gulf and distant Africa in seven epic voyages from 1405 to 1433, some 80 years before Columbus's voyages.

  20. In the 15th century, Zheng He, seen here with one of his massive ships in a painting at a temple shrine in Malaysia, led seven enormous seafaring expeditions.

  21. Zheng-He and Columbus Zheng He’s Treasure Ship Compared to Columbus’sSanta Maria

  22. The pattern of East-West relations-- from the first discovery of a sea route from Europe to Asia-- was largely one of Western action and Eastern reaction

  23. Ottoman Empire

  24. The West went to the East, but the East rarely saw a need to come to the West

  25. Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a sea route to India in 1498 opened important commercial traffic, led to the expansion and consolidation of the Portuguese Empire, and the spread of European culture and Christianity in the Orient.

  26. Da Gama’s Voyage around the Cape of Good Hope 16th c Portugese trading ship

  27. The Portuguese were quickly followed by the Spanish and Dutch, and later the French and British sent their ships into Eastern oceans

  28. The British, with their superior naval strength, finally became the dominant colonial power in southern Asia The Armorial Bearings of the Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies Granted by Garter and Clarenceux Kings of Arms in 1600 and as Borne and Used until 1709

  29. Japan, reacted to the Western challenge in a different fashion

  30. Throughout the 14th-19th centuries, Japan isolated itself from foreign trade and contacts under the rule of the Shoguns

  31. In 1542 the first Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries arrived in Japan. They brought firearms and Christianity with them. Despite Buddhist opposition, many warlords welcomed Christianity because they wanted to trade with Western nations for armaments

  32. Imposing order after a series of civil wars, Hideyoshi, in 1587, issued an edict expelling Christian missionaries.

  33. European Conquest of the Americas

  34. Viking Explorations

  35. Leif ErikssonIceland Vinland Sagas • Saga of the Greenlanders and Saga of Erik the Red • Most complete accounts of Norse explorations of North America in the 10thand 11th c.

  36. In fourteen hundred and ninety-two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue

  37. Inception of the Scientific Method • Hypothesis: It is possible to reach the Orient by sailing West • Experimentation: Voyages of Discovery • Analysis: There are two large land masses blocking access to the East • Conclusion: Two new continents – North and South America

  38. The Age of Exploration presented enormous challenges and dilemmas to the world view of European civilization. • Even Columbus wavered between this fervent hope that he had discovered the Garden of Eden and his desire to exploit the riches and peoples of the New World. Engraving by Theodore DeBry

  39. Hispanic Exploration and Conquest1492 -- 1542 • In one generation Hispanics explored and colonized over half the earth & waters • During the period of exploration, in one generation, approximately 300,000 Spaniards had emigrated to the New World • They established over 200 cities and towns throughout the Americas. • In one generation Hispanics acquired more new territory than Rome conquered in five centuries .

  40. Major HispanicExplorations and Conquests • 1492- 1504: Columbus’s 4 voyages to New World • 1500: Pedro Cabral (Portugese) discovered Brazil • 1501-02: Amerigo Vespucci (Italian) after accompanying Spanish conquistadors decided that what they had discovered was not Asia, but new continents • 1508-21: Juan Ponce de Leon explored Cuba, Jamaican and Florida –Cuban conquest: 1508 • 1513: Vasco de Nuñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and named the Pacific ocean Detailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests

  41. Major HispanicExplorations and Conquests • 1519- 22: Ferdinand Magellan's crew & ship, completed voyage of circumnavigation. • 1519-21: Hernando Cortez’s conquest of the Aztecs in Mexico • 1531: Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas in Peru • 1540: Vasquéz de Coronado explores California, Kansas, Arizona, New México, Texas, Oklahoma. • 1539-42: Hernando de Soto explores SE United States and discovers Mississippi River Detailed chronology of Spanish explorations and conquests

  42. European Colonies in the Americas

  43. Major FrenchExplorations and Settlements • 1525 : Giovanni da Verrazzano, a hired Italian pilot, failed to find the Northwest Passage, but he did establish a French claim to portions of North America. • 1534 -35: Jacques Cartier ventured up the St. Lawrence River as far as today’s Montréal. • 1542: Sieur de Robervall tried to establish a permanent settlement in North America at the site of present-day Québec; the settlers remained one brutal winter before returning to France.

  44. Major French Explorations and Settlements • 1562 : Jean Ribaultexplored coastal Florida and the St. Johns River and founded a failed Huguenot settlement. • Samuel de Champlain founded Port Royal (1605) and Québec (1608). • 1630s: Jean Nicolet (Nicollet) explored Lake Michigan and surrounding areas. • 1673: Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi Basin. • 1679: La Salle explored the upper Mississippi River and Lake Michigan areas. • 1698 : Sieur de Bienvillefounded New Orleans.

  45. European Colonies in the Americas

  46. Early English Explorations and Settlements • 1497: John Cabot exploredNewfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Labrador : English fishing rights • 1580s : Sir Francis Drake harrassed Spanish treasure ships and attacked Spanish settlements up and down the coast. The Spanish called the British sailors pirates and Sea Dogs. • 1584-87: lost Roanoke settlement in Virginia • 1588: Defeat of the Spanish Armada.  • 1606: Jamestown settlement in Virginia • 1609-1611: Henrik Hudson exploredHudson Bay, Hudson River, and Hudson Strait. • 1620: Plymouth colony settlement in New England

  47. European Colonies in the Americas

  48. European Conquest of Africa