Personality • Traits such as sociability, independence, dominance, anxiety • Consistent across situations and over time • Self-Concept: Perceptions of self • Self Esteem: Evaluation of self • Identity: Overall sense of who you are
Sigmund Freud • Three parts of the personality • Selfish Id, Rational Ego, Moralistic Superego • Stages of psychosexual development • Biological,ending at sexual maturity • Personality formed during the first 5 years • Child anxieties become adult traits
Erik Erikson • Emphasized • Social influences • Rational ego • Life-span growth • Crisis-oriented stages result from • Maturational forces, social demands
Psychometric Theory • Personality: A set of traits • Individual differences in each trait • Measurement approach • The “Big Five” – universal and stable openness to experience conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness neuroticism • Evidence of genetic basis and universality
Personality inventory • I see myself as: • 1 = disagree strongly 1 extraverted, enthusiastic • 2 =- disagree moderately 2 critical, quarrelsome • 3 = disagree a little 3 dependable, self-disciplined • 4 = neither agree nor disagree 4 anxious, easily upset • 5 = agree a little 5 open to new experiences, complex • 5 = agree moderately 6 reserved, quiet • 7 = agree strongly7 sympathetic, warm • 8 disorganized, careless • 9 calm, emotionally stable • 10.conventional, uncreative
Comparison • Social Learning theory • Situational influences • Environmental emphasis • Psychoanalytic: Universal, age-related changes • Psychometric • Trait theory • Continuity (stability)
Development of Self • Joint attention – 9 mo • Self-recognition - 15-24 mo • Categorical self – 18-24 mo • Based on • Cognitive development • Social experience: Looking-glass self
Temperament • Buss & Plomin • Emotionality, Activity, Sociability (EAS) • Genetically based – ID twins But also cross-cultural differences
Temperament • Thomas & Chess • A set of tendencies to respond in predictable ways, across situations and across time • Easy • Difficult • Slow to warm-up
What is temperament? Where do the characteristics come from? • Temperament is behavioral style: the how of behavior rather than the what or why. Temperamental differences are present at birth; they influence how children behave toward individuals and objects in their environments and how they are affected by the environment.Temperament characteristics explain in part how individuals with many stresses may do well while some with little or no stress have difficulty.
How can professionals help parents deal with infants and children who have difficult temperament characteristics? • There are four basic ways to use temperament information to help children and their caregivers:a) Education about the existence of temperament differences;b) Individual behavioral assessment of a particular child, using a standardized questionnaire;c) Environmental intervention; systematically changing the environment to accommodate temperamental characteristics;d) Support groups to share experiences, discuss parenting techniques, and strategies for coping with a spirited youngster.
How do temperament characteristics affect parenting? • While some infants are mild and joyful others are irritable and cry persistently. Easy babies are so pleasant to care for they may receive (and give back) loads of affection and attention. The fussy, spirited child may scream and kick when given attention. As development unfolds, the fussy child may feel aversive to the caregiver and may receive less nurturance and affection. • This is a striking reality for some parents who have an easy baby followed by a feisty one (or vice-versa). Many parents feel guilty and wonder if they have done something to harm their child because the spirited ones are so much more difficult to raise.
Are spirited infants and children more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems? • Temperament may make certain children in certain environments more likely to have these problems. These 'risk factors' occur when there is a mismatch between the child's temperament and some demand in the environment-a poor fit between the child's temperament and the expectations for behavior in the situation. 'Easy' babies and children may have 'protective' factors where mismatches are rare and the rate of conflict is low. • Goodness of Fit - p. 286
The nine characteristics are (NYLS): • Activity level -the amount of physical motion exhibited during the day • Persistence -the extent of continuation of behavior with or without interruption • Distractibility -the ease of being interrupted by sound, light, etc unrelated behavior • Initial Reaction -response to novel situations, whether approaching or withdrawing • Adaptability -the ease of changing behavior in a socially desirable direction • Mood -the quality of emotional expression, positive or negative • Intensity - the amount of energy exhibited in emotional expression • Sensitivity -the degree to which the person reacts to light, sound, etc. • Regularity -the extent to which patterns of eating, sleeping, elimination, etc. are consistent or inconsistent from day to day.
In 1968 William B. Carey, developed the first practical measure of temperament, the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Since then he and several associates have authored a series of temperament questionnaires assessing the nine NYLS temperament characteristics in infants as young as one month of age and in children through the end of the twelfth year. The Carey Temperament Scales. • Activity: 4-11 months – the infant moves about much during diapering and dressing • 3-7 years – the child speaks so quickly that it is sometimes difficult to understand him/her • Adaptability: 3-7 years – the child will avoid misbehavior if punished firmly once or twice
Childhood Self • By age 2 • Use of “I,” “me,” “mine” • Physical characteristics • By age 8 • Social identity • Personality trait terms • Social comparison
Self-perception • Self-Esteem: Multidimensional • Harter’s research on self-perception • Children rated themselves on: • Scholastic competence (feeling smart, doing well in school) • Social competence (being popular, liked by others) • Behavioral competence (behaving appropriately, not getting in trouble) • Athletic competence (being good at sports) • Physical appearance (feeling good-looking)
SELF-ESTEEM EXAMPLES • I don’t feel anyone else is better than I • I am free of shame, blame, and guilt • I am a happy, carefree person • I have no need to prove I am as good as or better than others • I do not have a strong need for people to pay attention to me or like what I do • Losing does not upset me or make me feel ‘less than’ others
Influences on Self-Esteem • Competence differences • Social feedback (positive or negative) • Genetic • Parents (cross-cultural) • Warm and democratic • Enforce clearly stated rules
Self-esteem and • Academic success • Antisocial behavior (e.g. bullying) • Physical attractiveness • Sex,drugs and rock-and-roll
Adolescent Integration • Different selves in different situations • Storm & stress in about 20% • Move to middle school • Often difficult • Especially for females • Most maintain high self-esteem
A Sense of Identity • Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion • Adolescence • Identity crisis • Moratorium • Marcia’s Identity Statuses • Diffusion, Foreclosure, Moratorium, Achieved
i • Which best represents “identity diffusion”? • A Fred plans to be a teacher because his parents and siblings are all teachers. • B Erica doesn’t really know what she wants to be when she “grows up” and couldn’t care less about even exploring the possibilities. • C Thandi has taken a battery of interest inventories and is exploring different majors at the • university, thinking about possibilities for her future career. • D Lee has talked with career counsellors, his parents, peers and instructors, and has determined that he is best suited for a career in teaching. He is now doing his student teaching.
Issues of Identity • Few gender differences • Female focus of concerns • Sexuality • Interpersonal relations • Career vs. family roles • Takes more time overall • Timing of different domains
Influences on Identity Formation • Cognitive growth • Relationship with parents • Parental rejection/neglect – diffusion • Parental authority - foreclosure • Experiences outside home • College: Extended moratorium • Cultural context
Adult: Self-Conceptions and Culture • Individualistic culture • Self-reliance & independence • Generalizable traits • Maintaining high self-esteem • Collectivist Culture • Interdependence, social harmony, self-critical • Social roles and identity • Traits specific to situation
Self-Concept and Aging • Stable self-esteem • Generally good • Ability to adjust ideal to real self • Evaluate self with different standards • Comparisons with age-mates • Related to stable personality traits
Changes in Personality • Cross-sectional studies show changes • Longitudinal/Cross-cultural studies • Adulthood: Achievement and confidence • Older adults • Decreases - activity • Increases – introversion
Influences on Personality Change • Heredity • Childhood experiences • Stability of environment • Biological factors (disease) • Poor person-environment fit
Adulthood – Erikson & Research • Men: Identity then intimacy • Women: Identity & intimacy together • Generativity supported • Integrity supported • Life review
Midlife Crisis • Stereotype • Painful self evaluation • Dramatic life changes • Desire to find youth • Erikson: not really • Levinson: questioning “Life Structure” • Trait stability - not change
Vocational Development • Young Adults: Career exploration • Thirties: Settling down • Forties & Fifties: Career peaks • Older workers • Competent, satisfied and positive • Selective optimization w/compensation
Retirement • Average age: 63 • Adjustment phases • Success factors • Disengagement vs. Activity Theory • Person-environment fit