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hemant kumar rath infonet lab dept of electrical engineering iit bombay mumbai 400076 n.
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Tutorial on Network Simulator (NS2) PowerPoint Presentation
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Tutorial on Network Simulator (NS2)

Tutorial on Network Simulator (NS2)

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Tutorial on Network Simulator (NS2)

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  1. Hemant Kumar Rath Infonet Lab, Dept of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 Tutorial on Network Simulator(NS2)

  2. Introduction • Discrete event simulator targeted at networking research and education • Protocol design, traffic studies, etc • Protocol comparison • Wired and wireless networks • Back end is in C++ and front end is in oTcl • Provide a collaborative environment • Open source, Freely distributed • Share code, protocols, models, etc • No code guarantee • Easy comparison of similar protocols

  3. Simulation Network • Wired Network • Routing: Distance Vector, Link State • Transportation: TCP and UDP • Queuing disciplines: drop-tail, RED, FQ, SFQ, DRR, RR • QoS: IntServ and DiffServ • Wireless • Ad-hoc routing and mobile IP: AODV • Sensor-MAC, WiMAX (new) • Power control in wireless networks • Tracing, Visualization, Analysis, Other utilities

  4. NS2 Functionalities • Traffic models and applications • Web, FTP, Telnet, CBR, real time traffic • Transport protocols • Unicast: TCP (Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, etc.), UDP • Multicast: SRM • Routing and queuing • Wired and ad-hoc routing and directed diffusion • Queuing protocols: RED, drop-tail, etc • Physical media • Wired (point-to-point, LANs), wireless (multiple propagation models), error models, satellite

  5. How to work in NS2 ? • Download the software • Install NS2 in your home directory • Compile the latest version of NS2 • Validate NS2 • Create your topology • Need to understand the real topology and the directory structure in NS2 • Modify the existing codes • C++ and/or .tcl files • Create your own .tcl script for this • Execute the script • Analyze your result

  6. Download and Installation of NS2 • Select the Operating System • NS2 is available for both Windows and Linux • Linux is desirable as C++ compiler is free and easy to debug • Check your Hardware • Processor speed, RAM, home directory space • Minimum 400 MB space is required • Download the appropriate source file • Available locally in the course home page • http://sharada.iitb.ac.in/~ee706/ns2.html • Read the instructions in details before installation

  7. Download and Installation of NS2 • Install NS2 in your home directory • Follow the instructions given in the course home page • For trouble shooting refer to the links provided in the course home page • http://nsnam.isi.edu/nsnam/index.php/Troubleshooting • Else, do a google search • Solutions to most of the problems are available in the NS2 mailing list • http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns-lists.html

  8. Create your Topology • Decide what do you want to simulate • Wired or wireless network • What are the protocols? • How many nodes, what are the measuring parameters? • What are the applications involved, etc? • Make a rough sketch of the topology • Figure out the concerned files (C++ or .tcl) • Based on the requirement do the following • Edit the existing C++ files and/or the .tcl files • You can create new C++ files

  9. Data and Control Separation • oTCL in the Front End • Control part of NS2 • Topology (Simulation scenario) configurations • Event driven • Periodic or Triggered action • Manipulates existing C++ objects • Easy to write and edit • C++ in the Back End • Core of NS2, data part of NS2 • Easy to modify the code • Not fully layered and structured • Packet processing and execution

  10. Directory Structure • Main directories • bin, ns-2xx, lib, man, include, etc in ns2 home • ns-2.xx • Readme file • Makefile, installation file, tutorial, etc • Source files related to the protocols • All .cpp and .h files related needed for editing • Need understanding of interaction among the functions/sub routines • Not fully layered like QualNet

  11. Compiling NS2 • Create / Modify the C++ file • If you are creating new C++ file, include the name of the new files in the Makefile • If you are editing the existing C++ files, keep a copy of the original file • Add comments to your modifications with date • Compile NS2 • After creation/editing, compile NS2 using • (make clean;) make; • Check for errors, if any and rectify

  12. Executing NS2 • Create your .tcl script as per your topology • Run the .tcl file using ns command • Check which ns2 you are using • Create a huge output file (trace file) to analyze • Need to understand the file contents • Perl scripts are also available to analyze the trace file • Analyze using nam • Visual network animator • Single thread of control • No locking or race conditions to worry about

  13. Functional Diagram of NS2 Problem Result Analysis/debug Topology Modify ns (.cpp/.tcl) Setup/execute simulation with ns (.tcl)

  14. Simulation with NS2 • Create a New Event Scheduler (simulator env.) • Turn on Tracing • Can use nam also • Topology Creation • Create Nodes, Network, Queuing, etc. • Setup Routing • Send Data • Create Transport Connection, Create Traffic, Start Applications • Insert Errors • Analyze the Trace File

  15. Event Scheduler • Event • Generation of a packet, start/finish of transmission • Create a New Event Scheduler set ns [new Simulator] • Schedule Events $ns at <time> <event> • <event>: any legitimate ns/tcl command • $ns at 10.0 “finish” • Start Scheduler $ns run

  16. Tracing and Analyzing • Packet Tracing • On all links • $ns trace-all [open cwnd.tr w] • On one specific link • $ns trace-queue $n0 $n1$tr <Event> <time> <from> <to> <pkt> <size> -- <fid> <src> <dst> <seq> <attr> + 1 0 2 cbr 210 ------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0 - 1 0 2 cbr 210 ------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0 r 1.00234 0 2 cbr 210 ------- 0 0.0 3.1 0 0 • Event Tracing • Record “event” in trace file • $ns eventtrace-all E 2.267203 0 4 TCP slow_start 0 210 1

  17. Topology Creation • Create Nodes • set n0 [$ns node] • set n1 [$ns node] • Assign Links and Queuing • $ns <link_type> $n0 $n1 <bandwidth> <delay> <queue_type> • <link_type>: duplex-link, simplex-link • <queue_type>: DropTail, RED, CBQ, FQ, SFQ, DRR, diffserv RED queues • Viz: $ns duplexlink $n0 $n1 1Mb 10ms DropTail • Link between n0 and n1 is duplex, 1Mbps capacity, 10msec delay and queue is Drop Tail

  18. Setup Routing • Unicast • $ns rtproto <type> • <type>: Static, Session, DV, cost, multi-path • Multicast • $ns multicast (right after [new Simulator]) • $ns mrtproto <type> • <type>: CtrMcast, DM, ST, BST • Other Types of Routing Supported • Source routing, Hierarchical routing

  19. Sending Data • Create UDP Agent and Attach • set udp0 [new Agent/UDP] • $ns attach-agent $n0 $udp0 • Create CBR Traffic • set src [new Application/Traffic/CBR] • set cbr0 [new Application/Traffic/CBR] • $cbr0 set packetSize_ 500 • $cbr0 set interval_ 0.005 • $cbr0 attachagent $udp0 • Create Traffic Sink and Attach • set null [new Agent/Null] • $ns attach-agent $n1 $null

  20. Sending Data • Create Exponential or Pareto on-off • set src [new Application/Traffic/Exponential] • set src [new Application/Traffic/Pareto • Connect two Agents • $ns connect $udp0 $null • Start and Stop of Data • $ns at 0.5 “$cbr0 start” • $ns at 4.5 “$cbr0 stop” • Create TCP Agent and Attach • set tcp0 [new Agent/TCP] • $ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp0

  21. Sending Data • Create Traffic Sink and Attach • set null0 [new Agent/TCPSink] • $ns attach-agent $n1 $null0 • Connect the Agents • $ns connect $tcp0 $null0 • Traffic on Top of TCP • FTP • set ftp [new Application/FTP] • $ftp attach-agent $tcp0 • Telnet • set telnet [new Application/Telnet] • $telnet attach-agent $tcp0

  22. Inserting Errors • Creating Error Module • set loss_module [new ErrorModel] • $loss_module set rate_ 0.01 • $loss_module unit pkt • $loss_module ranvar [new RandomVariable/Uniform] • $loss_module drop-target [new Agent/Null] • Inserting Error Module • $ns lossmodel $loss_module $n0 $n1

  23. Analyze the Trace File • Trace files are huge in size • Only redirect the parameters you want to measure • Traces begin with a single character or abbreviation • It indicates the type of trace, followed by a fixed or variable trace format • Perl scripts are available to analyze trace files • Refer for the details • http://nsnam.isi.edu/nsnam/index.php/NS-2_Trace_Formats

  24. Queries? hemantr@ee.iitb.ac.in