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  1. L02 FACULTY OF EDUCATION EAD5000 EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP DR. RAMLI BIN BASRI ROOM G28, TEL: office 03-8946 8248, H/P 019 224 1332 (smsprefered) E-MEL:


  3. LECTURE 02 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND APPLICATION IN EDUCATION LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR AND APPLICATION IN EDUCATION LEADERSHIP 1. Nature of Leadership 2. Traits Approach Great Man/Trait theory 3. Skill Approach 4. Behavioural Approach Iowa study Ohio study Michigan study Grid management



  6. Conceptualizing Leadership Definitions: “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” Northhouse, 2015 Components of Leadership • Is a process • Involves influence • Occurs in groups • To achieve a common goal

  7. Nature of Leadership 1. Trait and Process Leadership • Traits: Leaders are born with special innate or inborn characteristic-born leader or a natural leader • Process Leadership: Leadership is a phenomenon due to interaction between leaders and followers. Leadership can be learned (IAB: Educational Leadership Institute)

  8. Nature of Leadership 2. Assigned and Emergent Leadership • Assigned Leadership: Leadership in formal positions in organization (Principals, Deputy Principals…) • Emergent Leadership: A person as the most influential member in a group where members of group support his/her leadership behavior (dominant, competent, intelligent, communicator identified as leader of task group)

  9. Nature of Leadership 3. Leadership and Power Power is the potential to influence • Position power is power derived from a particular office or rank includes Legitimate, Reward and Coercive power. • Personal power is derived from followers. Includes powers derives from reference and expertise

  10. Nature of Leadership 4. Leadership and Coercion • Coercion means to use force to influence or effect change against the will • Involves manipulating penalties or rewards • Use of threats, punishment, negative rewards schedules • Coercive leadership is not ideal leadership, it counters with the notion of leadership for common goal.

  11. Nature of Leadership 4. Leadership and Management • Management produces order and Consistency. Involves planning, budgeting, Organizing, staffing, controlling and problem solving • Leadership produces change and movement. Involves establishing direction, aligning staff, motivating and inspiring.

  12. Autocratic, Democratic, Laissed-Faire Activity 1: The nature of leadership you are under, let us share

  13. Leadership Approach: Traits Approach

  14. Trait Theories of Leadership: The Heroic Leader or The great man theory • Emerged in ancient Greece, India and China • “Command (Leadership) is a matter of wisdom, integrity, humanity, courage and discipline” Sun Tzu (500 BC)

  15. Great Man Theory Leadership Approach • Initially, leadership ability was regarded as a natural trait, born and not created later. • Those who are qualified to be leaders are born with OR WITHOUT leadership qualities. • Also known as the Trait Theories of Leadership: The Heroic Leader or The great man theory

  16. Great Man Theory • Leaders are born, not made. • This approach emphasized that a person is born with or without the necessary traits of leaderships. • Early explanations of leadership studied the “traits” of great leaders • “Great man” theories (Gandhi, Lincoln, Napoleon) Belief that people were born with these traits and only the great people possessed them

  17. Great Man Theory • Great Man approach actually emphasis “charismatic” leadership. charisma being the Greek word for gift. • No matter what group such a natural leader finds himself in, he will always be recognized for what he is. • According to the great man theory of leadership, leadership calls for certain qualities like commanding personality, charm, courage, intelligence, persuasiveness and aggressiveness.

  18. Traits Theory Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership Trait Theories ask: What characteristics or traits make a person a leader? Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders

  19. TraitTheory The trait theory is based on the great man theory, but it is more systematic in its analysis of leaders. Like the great man theory, this theory assumes that the leader’s personal traits are the key to leadershipsuccess. PersonalityTraits Abilities PersonalTraits Motivators • SupervisingAbility • Intelligence • Initiative • Need forOccupational Achievement • Self-actualization • Power OverOthers • High FinancialReward • Job Security • Self-Assurance • Decisiveness • Masculinity/Famininity • Maturity • Working ClassAffinity

  20. Traits Theory • Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge

  21. Traits Theory Leadership Approach What are the characteristics of a successful leader? Keith Davis (1972) lists four traits that characterize the success of a leader. • Intelligence. Studies show that leaders have high intelligence compared to their staff's standard intelligence. • Social maturity. Leaders should be more mature and stable in terms of emotion and have a broad area of interest. They have a high self-concept that should be honored high. • Internal motivation and achievement drive. Leaders should have a motivation towards success. They need internal rewards and not just external rewards. • Human relations. Successful leaders will identify the ability and potential of the staff, make judgments, and ought to manage with centered on employees rather than productivity.

  22. Activity 2: Choose a successful leader, state the characteristics/traits he/she has. Let us share.State the name and the traits

  23. Leadership Approach The BIG Q: • Which trait is useful for different situation? • Points to the process of leadership • Integrity, maturity and energy • Business acumen • Organizational acumen • Curiosity, Calculative • Intellectual • Global mindset • Superior judgment • Appetite for success • Knowledge to practice Succesful CEO, Charan, R. & Colvin, G. (1999)

  24. TraitTheories • Limitations: • No universal traits that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong”situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership andtraits. • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

  25. Limitation: Traits approach is inadequate because: • Which trait is useful for different situation? • There is no consistence patterns between specific traits or sets of traits and leadership effectiveness. • Always relate physical characteristic such as height, weight and health to effective leadership. • Feudalistic: the upper-class has major share of these traits • Leadership itself is complex.

  26. Leadership Approach • Another approach is to pay full attention to employees. The trait approach only focuses on the natural talent of the leader (Weakness of Traits theory). • Another weakness is Which trait is useful for different situation? • There is a sense of dissatisfaction with this approach, so the emphasis shifts to the individuals who are being led. • In this approach the leadership is seen in terms of leader behavior and how it influences the group and is influenced by the group of followers. • Another approach is to understand the situation variables that influence leadership behavior as a result of a time or situation. • New understanding of Leader: Individuals with a quality or natural talent as required by a situation will appear as a leader.

  27. Leadership Approach: Behavioral Approach (TeoriTingkahLaku)

  28. Leadership Approach • In the 1950s the dissatisfaction with the trait approach (Behavior & Situation), attracted researchers to the true conduct of the leader. • Attention is drawn to two key aspects: what does the leader do, and how does he do it? • Under this approach there is a concept that, someone trained with appropriate behavior, CAN be a leader (against the concept of born leaders). Merit & Leadership Establish school for Leadership training

  29. BehaviouralTheory • In contrast with trait theory, behavioural theory attempts to describe leadership in terms of what leaders do, while trait theory seeks to explain leadership on the basis of what leaders are (characteristic traits). • Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits. • Leadership according to this approach is the result of effective role behaviour. • This new approach emphasizes on leader behaviour(which could be measured).

  30. BehavioralTheory • Theories that attempt to isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders • Behavioral studies focus on identifying critical behavioral determinants of leadership that, in turn, could be used to train people to become leaders

  31. Leadership Approach • There are two important functions of the leader in this approach. • First, the functions related to problem solving, and secondly, the functions pertaining to keep group to operate properly. • An administrator always engages with his employees. He was unable to avoid self-adjustment problems. • Humanitarian issues will be an organizational problem and this means human issues and organizational issues can not be separated. • In such a situation the human behavior will facilitate the work of a Leader.

  32. BehavioralTheory Leadership Approach Each school principal is involved with education planning and teachers' affairs. Teachers can be governed by a behavioral approach that takes into account the following: • employees are encouraged to participate in discussions on their work as well as organizational operations. • providing job enrichment such as changing the form of job handling, • giving employees the freedom to make decisions about their duties, • providing opportunities to engage in more challenging tasks. • conducting two-way communication between principals and teachers. • taking into account the welfare and the affair of teachers

  33. Leadership Approach • Leaders of an educational institution should be able to create a pleasant atmosphere, such as free from emotional, social, physical, and mental stresses. • When employees are happy and happy with work, productivity can be enhanced. They will feel more interested in working if they are placed with colleagues whom they can collaborate in harmonious circumstances. • Good and friendly relationships between leaders and employees are necessary to create a satisfactory working environment. • Leaders also need to create exciting and challenging jobs. Workers who really want to work will not be happy with routine work. For him such a quick job is boring. • On the contrary, challenging and thoughtful work will inspire and raise interest.

  34. Leadership Approach • Many studies attempt to relate the specific behavior of leaders in management, supervision, or leadership with the effectiveness of the working group, in terms of production and employee satisfaction (Carrol and Tosi, 1977). • Indeed, there are principals who are not accepted by teachers but they still hold the position of leader. • The difference between high and low performing leaders will be determined by the following factors: • how much time is used for planning, • how they discipline staff, • communication pattern, • recognition given to staff, • pressure and firmness to improve production or workmanship.

  35. Behavioral Approach (TingkahLaku) : Universiti IOWA, 1939 Leadership Style

  36. (1) Autocratic style • Autocratic leaders would want to know about everything that is going on within the organization. They would want to make practically all the decisions and have the final say. • There is minimal information flow from bottom up. If at all it happens, it could be status reports or answer to specific enquiries the leader may have asked.

  37. Autocratic Leadership Leader-Subordinates Interactions Leadership Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate

  38. (2) Paternalistic Leadership • This style is also work-centered with the emphasis placed on results and output. However, leaders who have this style have more consideration for people. They tend to behave like parents who will look after their children so long as these children obey them. • Paternalistic leaders tend to feel that they know what is good for their followers, and like feudal chiefs they will look after their subordinates, pay them for loyalty, long service, and for being in the team. • The information flow for this type of leadership style is top-down as well as down up.

  39. The workers for their part are often happy to leave their well being in the hands of their boss. Paternalistic Leadership Leadership Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate

  40. (3) Democratic/Participative Leadership • Democratic leaders believe in letting people have a say in decision making. • Directional flow of information takes place in an organizational that has this type of leadership. • Subordinates are allowed to speak their mind.

  41. The nature of democratic leadership allows for a bigger role on the part of subordinates in the running of the organization. Feedback from subordinates is always encouraged because it is not only good for the subordinates but also provides for better decision-making as well. Democratic/Participative Leadership Leadership Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate

  42. (4) Laissez-Faire Leadership • Leader of this mould do not involve themselves too much in the running of the organization. • Their subordinates are given a lot of freedom to manage. • The leader, by not constantly communicating or asking for feedback, has almost advocated “free-rein”. • Generally, leaders of this type are not very effective.

  43. Laissez-Faire Leadership Leadership Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate

  44. Activity 3: Are you a leader? Which style?Autocratic, Democratic, Laissed-Faire Leadership Approach

  45. Which one is your style? • This is our task, you are free to choose how to do it. When you have completed, we all can go home. • This is our task, l have carefully laid out how to do it, get it done by the end of the day…on my table by four. • This is our task, let us discuss how best to carry it out and when it should be completed.

  46. Skill Approach (Leadership Capability)(Keupayaan) Skill Approach Robert Katz, 1955

  47. Skill Approach Leadership • Similar to trait approach, skill approach is still leader-centered perspective on leadership. • Weakness of traits theory led to attempts to identify a definitive set of leadership traits. • But shift emphasis from personality characteristics to skills and abilities that can be learned and developed for effective leadership or leadership capibility • Able to explain why top management may move from industry to industry

  48. Three-Skill Approach Leadership • Technical skill, about knowledge and competency and values in work or activity, deals with things. • Human skill, about knowledge and ability to work with people, deals wit people • Conceptual skill, abilities to work with ideas and concepts, deal with ideas.

  49. Activity 4: Describe your leader? Technical, Human, Conceptual Leadership Approach