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Chapter 18: Financial Statement Analysis

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  1. Chapter 18: Financial Statement Analysis M. GolamRabbani

  2. Basics of Financial Statement Analysis Analyzing financial statements involves: Characteristics Comparison Bases Tools of Analysis • Liquidity • Profitability • Solvency • Intracompany • Industry averages • Intercompany • Horizontal • Vertical • Ratio

  3. Tools of Analysis Horizontal Analysis • Horizontal analysis, also called trend analysis, is a technique for evaluating a series of financial statement data over a period of time. • Purposeis to determine the increase or decrease that has taken place. • Commonly applied tothe balance sheet, income statement, and statement of retained earnings.

  4. Tools of Analysis Horizontal Analysis Changes suggest that the company expanded its asset base during 2009 and financed this expansion primarily by retaining income rather than assuming additional long-term debt.

  5. Tools of Analysis Horizontal Analysis Overall, gross profit and net income were up substantially. Gross profit increased 17.1%, and net income, 26.5%. Quality’s profit trend appears favorable.

  6. Tools of Analysis Vertical Analysis • Vertical analysis, also called common-size analysis, is a technique that expresses each financial statement item as a percent of a base amount. • On an income statement, we might say that selling expenses are 16% of net sales. • Vertical analysis is commonly applied to the balance sheet and the income statement.

  7. Tools of Analysis Vertical Analysis These results reinforce the earlier observations that Quality is choosing to finance its growth through retention of earnings rather than through issuing additional debt.

  8. Tools of Analysis Vertical Analysis Quality appears to be a profitable enterprise that is becoming even more successful.

  9. Ratio Analysis Ratio analysisexpresses the relationship among selected items of financial statement data. Financial Ratio Classifications Liquidity Profitability Solvency Measures short-term ability of the company to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash. Measures the income or operating success of a company for a given period of time. Measures the ability of the company to survive over a long period of time.

  10. Ratio Analysis A single ratioby itself is not very meaningful. The discussion of ratios will include the following types of comparisons.

  11. Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios • Measure the short-term ability of the company to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash. • Short-term creditors such as bankers and suppliers are particularly interested in assessing liquidity. • Ratios include the current ratio, the acid-test ratio, receivables turnover, and inventory turnover.

  12. Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios Ratio of 2.96:1 means that for every dollar of current liabilities, Quality has $2.96 of current assets.

  13. Ratio Analysis Acid-Test Ratio Liquidity Ratios Acid-test ratio measures immediate liquidity.

  14. Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios

  15. Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios Measures the number of times, on average, the company collects receivables during the period.

  16. Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios Measures the number of times, on average, the inventory is sold during the period.

  17. Ratio Analysis A variant of the receivables turnover ratio is to convert it to an average collection periodin terms of days. 365 days / 10.2 times = every 35.78 days Receivables are collected on average every 36 days. A variant of inventory turnover is the days in inventory. 365 days / 2.3 times = every 159 days Inventory turnover ratios vary considerably among industries.

  18. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios • Measure the income or operating success of a company for a given period of time. • Income, or the lack of it, affects the company’s ability to obtain debt and equity financing, liquidity position, and the ability to grow. • Ratios include the profit margin, asset turnover, return on assets, return on common stockholders’ equity, earnings per share, price-earnings, andpayout ratio.

  19. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Measures the percentage of each dollar of sales that results in net income.

  20. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Measures how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate sales.

  21. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios A measure of profitability generated through the assets.

  22. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Shows how many dollars of net income the company earned for each dollar invested by the owners.

  23. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios A measure of the net income earned on each share of common stock.

  24. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Measures the net income earned on each share of common stock.

  25. Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratios Measures the percentage of earnings distributed in the form of cash dividends.

  26. Ratio Analysis Solvency Ratios • Solvency ratios measure the ability of a company to survive over a long period of time. • Debt to Total Assets and • Times Interest Earned are two ratios that provide information about debt-paying ability.

  27. Ratio Analysis Solvency Ratios Measures the percentage of the total assets that creditors provide.

  28. Ratio Analysis Solvency Ratios Provides an indication of the company’s ability to meet interest payments as they come due.

  29. Ratio Analysis Summary of Ratios

  30. Ratio Analysis