Civil war and Reconstruction (1861-1877) Tai Barber, Sameera Hosein, Hannah Ngo, Daylan Holman, and Benji Son
Presidents of the civil war • Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865) • First Republican President • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation • Gave the Gettysburg Address • Strong supporter of the 13th amendment • 10% plan: a state could be reintegrated into union if 10% of its voters in the election of 1860 take an oath of allegiance to US and abide by Emancipation.
Presidents of civil war continued • Jefferson Davis (1861-1865) • President of Confederate States of America. • Democrat. • CSA could not deny future secession because it was created by secession.
Presidents of reconstruction era • Andrew Johnson (1865-1869) • Democrat • First President to be impeached • Opposed 14th amendment • Purchased Alaska (Seward’s Folly)
Presidents of reconstruction era continued • Ulysses S Grant (1869-1877) • Supporter of 15th amendment • Republican • Youngest President • Known for appointing people who were not of good character • Signed Civil Rights Act of 1870 and 1875
The cause and effects • Causes • Slavery • States Rights • 11 Southern states seceding from the Union • Effects • Emancipation Proclamation • Jim Crow Laws • KKK (against Radical rule)
Famous Generals • Confederate • Robert E Lee • “Stonewall” Jackson • Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard • Union • Ulysses S Grant • George McClellan • General William Tecumseh Sherman • George Meade
Battle of Fort Sumter (1861) • First Battle of Bull Run (1861) • Peninsular Campaign (1862) • Battle of Antietam (1862) • Battle of Gettysburg (1863) • Battle of Vicksburg (1863) • Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)
Battle of fort Sumter • April 12 1861 • Marked the beginning of the Civil War when Confederates shot fire at Fort Sumter in Charleston, North Carolina.
First Battle of bull run • July 1861 • Confederate win • Union thought they could easily beat the Confederacy. • Showed that the war would not be ending anytime soon. • Promoted the myth that the Confederacy was invincible in battle.
PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN • March 1862 • Confederate win. • Union’s goal was to take the Confederacy’s capital city, Richmond. • Responded by Lee in his seven days war. • Total War Strategy
Battle of Antietam • Sept. 17 1862 • Turning point of the war. • Bloodiest day of war. • First union victory. • Union soldier found Lee’s plans and the Union army was able to intercept Lee and his army. • First time to photograph the battle field. • Launched the Emancipation Proclamation. • Prevented Paris and London from intervening and attacking Richmond
Battle of Gettysburg • July 1 1863 • Union victory • Biggest battle of the war • North gets foreign aid. • North proves that they are serious about fighting to countries over seas. • Lee’s army is forced to retreat and never gains back the offensive. • No hope left for the Confederacy to win.
Battle of Vicksburg • July 4 1863 • Union gains control of Mississippi River and cut Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the rest of the Confederacy. • Union victory
Sherman’s march to sea • November 15- December 21 1864 • Across Georgia and swept north into South Carolina • Destroyed everything that the enemy could survive on.
Appomattox Court house • April 1865 • Lee surrenders to Grant along with the remaining Confederate forces. • WAR IS OVER!!!!!!!!!
Reconstruction (1865-1877) • What was it? • The reconstruction era was the time right after the Union victory in the Civil War, when Andrew Johnson led the rebuilding of the South. This period was mainly to help the newly freed slaves, but caused the rise of extreme racists like the Ku Klux Klan. Many believe that the Reconstruction was ultimately a failure due to the rise in such violence and discrimination.
African American Aid • 1865- Congress establishes the Freedman’s Bureau • The Bureau's task was to help the Southern blacks and whites make the transition from slavery to freedom. • Free labor, 3,000 new schools, securing justice in courts • Radical Reconstruction (1867) • Blacks gain voice in government • Created in response to the black codes • Restrictive laws that were placed by new Southern State legislators that controlled labor and behavior of former slaves • Infuriated northerners
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • granted equality to ALL men in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.“ • Was vetoed by Johnson, but overturned by 2/3 of congress • Led to the impeachment of Andrew Johnson • Also led to the growth of the Radical Republicans
Social Ideologies • Even though blacks were given full equal rights and citizenship, they were still considered inferior to whites • Blacks still faced extreme discrimination and racism • Land given to freed blacks by Union general Sherman was taken away in 1865 by president Johnson, and gave them 44 million acres of unfertile and swampy land.
KKK would constantly kill off livestock belonging to blacks • Whites would try refraining from hiring blacks • Blacks were pressured into not placing their votes in the ballot • Black codes restricted rights of black businessmen
All in all, although over 360,000 black lives were lost for the fight for their freedom, complete privileges were not offered until late into the 20th century with the help of Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights Act of 1875 • One of Congress’s greatest advocates for black civil rights, Senator Charles Sumner help drafted the Civil Rights Act of 1875. • Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation.
Supreme court decision • The United States Supreme Court ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional and unauthorized by the 13th and 14th amendment for the Act regulated private company and individual actions rather than state government. It represented the last Congressional effort to protect the civil rights of African-Americans for more than half a century.
Colfax County Massacre • In 1873 the KKK massacre in Louisiana led to the first Supreme Court gun rights. • The government charged that the KKK mob had violated black citizens to keep and bear arms.
United States v. Cruikshank • Lower court ruling in Cruikshank held that individuals hold the rights to bare arm. • BUT the United States supreme court reversed the decision ruling that the second amendment protected only state militia.
Major Political Parties’ Platforms Along with involved third parties
Platform • Dominant force within the North. • Favoured industrialists, bankers, railroad interests, hard money policies, and strict laissez-faire economic policies. • Advocated moralistic policies based on Evangelical Protestant values. • Supported restrictions on the sale & use of alcohol. • Support from Methodists and Baptists of the Northeast & Midwest.
Platform • Dominant force within the South • Favoured a confined and minimal federal government and states’ rights • Equal rights of all Untied States citizens. • Equal taxation to all.
Third Parties Radical Republicans Liberal Republicans
Platforms Radical Republicans Liberal Republicans Opposed the re-election of Ulysses S. Grant. Defeated and vanished after the elections. Reform Republicans accomplished the election of Rutherford B. Hayes who gradually brought Reconstruction to an end. • Demanded civil rights for freedmen. • Initiated the Reconstruction Acts. • Supported Ulysses S. Grant • Grant sided with them when it came to Reconstruction policies. • Signed the Civil Rights Act of 1871.
Civil War/ Reconstruction Amendments
13th Amendment • Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Ratified by the states on 6th December 1865.
14th Amendment • Granted citizenship to all those born in the States, including former slaves. • Provided all citizens with equal protection under the laws. • Extended provisions of the Bill of Rights. • Ratified by the states on 9th July 1868. • Overturned Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857).
15th Amendment • Ratified on the 3rd January 1870. • Prohibited states from disenfranchising citizens the right to vote on account of race, colour, or past servitude. • Left open the possibility that states could institute voter qualifications such as literacy tests.
Telegraph • was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 • Was mostly used for military purposes • By 1860 construction of a line across the continent to connect New York with San Francisco and all major points between began
Railroads • The Civil War was the first war to use railroads • South had just 9,000 miles of track • North had about 20,000 miles of track • Lincoln supported the building of the railroads
photography • The civil war was the first war to document the war using a camera • Was invented by the assistant of Samuel Morse, who built the telegraph
Submarines • submarines were used by both sides • Confederates carried out the first ever submarine to attack to successfully sink an enemy ship • David Bushnell buit the first submarine called the turtle
Last but not least the Cotton Gin • Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin • Cotton gin could generate up to fifty pounds of cleaned cotton daily, making cotton production profitable for the southern states