Application of Consumer Memory to Brand Knowledge, Brand Equity and Brand Extension
Outline • Keller’s model of brand knowledge • Brand awareness • Brand image • Customer-based brand equity • What is CBBE? • How should CBBE be managed? • How can CBBE be measured? • Brand extension
Brand knowledge (Keller) brand recognition brand awareness brand recall brand knowledge types of brand associations strength of associations brand image favorability of associations uniqueness of associations
Types of brand associations • Product attributes • Product-related (intrinsic) • Non-product-related (extrinsic) • Product benefits • Functional • Psychosocial • Attitudes
In-class exercise: Brand schema for Clorox Draw your associative network for Clorox. Do this by thinking of all the associations that you have with this brand. How strong and favorable are the various associations, and which ones are unique to the brand?
Customer-based brand equity and its management • customer-based brand equity as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumers’ reactions to the marketing of the brand; • building CBBE: • choosing brand identities • developing supporting marketing programs to create strong brand awareness and establish a desired brand image • leveraging secondary associations • importance of consistency over time and across markets
Measurement of CBBE • direct approach: experiments in which consumers’ responses to marketing for the brand are compared with reactions to marketing for fictitious or unknown products; use of conjoint analysis; • indirect approach: • brand awareness: various recognition and recall tasks; • brand image: qualitative (free association, projective techniques) and quantitative (strength and favorability) methods;
Brand extension • use of an established brand name to launch a product in a new product category; • a brand extension strategy takes advantage of consumers’ awareness of the core brand and the possible transfer of brand associations to the new product; • extension evaluations depend on • the salience of core brand associations in the extension context, • the relevance of this information, and • the favorability of inferred associations; • problems associated with brand extensions are that the brand image might get diluted and that unsuccessful extensions can harm the core brand image;
In-class exercise: Clorox brand schema and brand extensions If Clorox were planning to extend its brand to other product categories (think about which other categories would be possible extension candidates), would the existing associations with Clorox facilitate or hinder acceptance of the extended brand?