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Madeleine Wright. Peter Wentworth. PUBLISHER 2007. Standard Document Formats. Why have them? When we need something that is independent of operating systems, software and hardware It helps if it is open-source, not proprietary
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Madeleine Wright Peter Wentworth PUBLISHER 2007
Standard Document Formats • Why have them? • When we need something that is independent of operating systems, software and hardware • It helps if it is open-source, not proprietary • PDF started as a proprietary format but was released as open-source in 2008 • It was ratified by the ISO in 2008
XML – a format for the Web TEXT SGML HTML XML
Portable Document Format (PDF) • A “standardized” format widely adopted for archival storage. • For example, Rhodes theses and publications which are stored in our library must be in PDF format. • PDF Format was invented by Adobe in 1993. • Not widely adopted initially. • Adobe made various extensions and revisions over the years. Version 1.7 is the “standardized” one. • Work in progress on PDF 2.0, but now under control of International Standards Organization (ISO).
Why do we need standardization? • Interoperability - your PDF reader or web browser will be able to render my documents accurately. • Sticking to a standard means that one can produce software, readers, writers, etc. without having to buy one manufacturer’s software or equipment. • With everybody using the same standards, it is more efficient to produce software and exchange information. • Preservation of important company information.
How did PDF get established? • Adobe created high-quality free reading software – Adobe Reader – that could run on Windows, Apple and Unix computers. • They sell design and production tools (Distiller, Photoshop, InDesign, Flash Creator) to create their profits. • Once they had a foothold as the “de facto” industry standard, they transferred PDF specifications to the standards organization to ensure that “their preferred way of doing things” became standardized.
What’s in a PDF document? • Document controls print layout. • Consists of a collection of objects (text paragraphs, fonts, graphic images), and exact layout information for each page. • Also contains imposition information – how the document’s pages are arranged on the printer’s sheet
User’s comments • "PDF is great because it not only captures my content but allows me to chose and lock down the look and feel for my content." • "PDF is great because I can apply a document signature to the file after I create it and then people can detect if it has been tampered with between me and them.”
PDF documents can be signed ... • A document can be digitally signed. This can “prove” that the document originated from a particular organization or person, and has not been tampered with.
Fonts can be embedded ... • Some fonts are standardized (e.g. Times, Helvetica, Courier) and will be correctly rendered on almost every PDF viewer or printing process. • But you can embed fonts (provided the font license permits this) for 100% certainty that the PDF will render precisely as you intended. • Embedded fonts are usual when document is being sent for professional publication, and appearance is essential.
Document usage can be restricted • Although a PDF viewer can choose to ignore these settings.
In our labs, it is slightly different A new menu item
Three printing concepts • Printing beyond the edge of the sheet is called ableed. Printing can occur on slightly larger sheets, which are subsequently cut to the exact size. The bleed ensures the colour goes all the way to the edge of the cut page. • Crop marks are use for alignment and cutting. • Spot colours are premixed inks of specific exact colours. One can use these instead of mixes of CMYK or RGB. Pantone colours are the de-facto standard. • Rhodes Purple is Pantone PMS 273
Publishing to Web • Save As , again • Here you have to choose trade-off between creating documents that are backward compatible with older browsers, or work only on newer browsers. • Be sure to test that your saved files work on the systems that you want them to work on!
An observation ... • PDF is “what you see is what you get”, and “preserve my look and feel”. • It really does work properly across different systems, and will render faithfully. • HTML and web technologies are based on “render my content in whatever way or layout is convenient on your current screen and system”. • It is much trickier to get it looking good across many different browsers and systems.