Transportation PLANNINGand management By Engr. Ghulam Hussain Lecturer Civil Engineering Department The University Of Lahore
Importance of Air Transportation Accessibility to inaccessible areas Fastest mode of transportation Connectivity over land and water Enhance international travel (tourism etc.) Relief during emergencies and natural disasters (2005 earthquake, 2010 floods)
Limitations of Air Transport • Requires huge funds • High initial construction cost (land cost) • High maintenance cost • Requires highly skilled workforce and sophisticated equipment • Operations highly dependent on weather conditions • Safety in air • Serious environmental concerns
Regulatory Bodies International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)
International Civil Aviation Organization Established in 1944 (headquarter is in Montreal Canada) Became a specialized agency of United Nations in 1947.
ICAO Objectives • Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. • Encourage the art of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes. • Encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international aviation. • Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport. • Prevent economic waste by unreasonable competition.
ICAO Objectives, Cont’d • Ensure that the rights of contracting states are fully respected and that every contracting state has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines. • Avoid discrimination between contracting states. • Promote safety of flight in international aviation. • Promote generally, the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics.
US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) • Formerly known as the Federal Aviation Agency. • FAA performs the following functions • Regulating air commerce and to promote its development for safe air carrier operations. • Controlling the use of airways, and to promote and encourage civil aeronautics development. • Research and development of air navigation facilities.
US Federal Aviation Administration, Cont’d • Prescribe and enforce the safety standards and regulations including aviation systems and subsystems, equipment, devices, materials, concept and procedures in their design and development process. • Aircraft registration and issue of safety certificates. • Participation in ICAO and other international organizations.
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) • Created in December 1982 • Airport management and development • Enforces high performance standards for efficiency and service in airport operations and the development of air cargo industries • Air space management and organization • Provides ATC service to ensure a safe expeditious flow. • Provides search and rescue service. • Airspace capacity in cooperation with ICAO and other groups.
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) • Air services development • Promotes safe and efficient commercial aviation • Promotes Trade and Economic Growth • Regulatory and advisory services • Regulate the operations of Pakistan registered aircraft (training centers) • Surveillance of aircraft engineering activities • Regulates the operation of aerospace industries and personnel fitness. • Advises the government on matters related CA
International Organizations International Air Transport Association (IATA) International Air Carrier Association (IACA) Airports Association Council International (AACI)
International Air Transport Association (IATA) • Founded in 1919 with the following objectives • To promote safe, regular and economic air transport for the benefit of people of the world. • To foster air commerce and to study the problems connected therewith. • To provide means for collaboration among air transport enterprises engaged directly or indirectly in international air transport service. • To cooperate with ICAO and other international organizations. • To regulate pricing and ticketing.
International Air Carrier Association (IACA) • Founded in 1971 with headquarter at Geneva. • Its objectives are • To encourage charter services. • To promote the quality of international air charter services. • To develop cooperation among air charter carriers and between carriers and aviation community. • To promote the development of air safety in general.
Airports Association Council International (AACI) • Formed in 1991 by the merger of International Civil Airport Association (ICAA) and Airports Operators Council International (AOCI). • Its main objectives are • Encourage the establishment of civil airports, landing areas and other air facilities. • Develop and establish standards governing planning, methods and procedures for airport design and construction, airport management, operation and maintenance.
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) 1951: creation of national flag carrier airline. June 7, 1954: first linking Karachi and Dacca February 1, 1955: service between Karachi and London via Cairo. January 31, 1959: linking Karachi and Delhi. May 5, 1961: leased Boeing 707-321 for service to London and New York. April 29, 1964: service to the Chinese city of Shanghai.
Components of an Airport Runway: for take-off and landing of aircrafts Taxiway: connects runways with other parts of airport, e.g. apron, hangers Apron: parking area for loading and unloading of passengers and cargo Terminal building: interface between air and groundside, baggage and passenger processing area Hangars: aircraft shelter and maintenance area Air Traffic Control (ATC): includes control tower, guidance systems, lighting systems, etc.
Airport Classification • Based on Take-off and Landing (ICAO) • Based on Geometric Design (ICAO) • Based on Aircraft Approach Speed (FAA) • Based on Aircraft Wing Span (FAA) • Based on Functional Use
Based on Aircraft Approach Speed (FAA) Approach Approach CategorySpeed (Knots) A < 91 B 91 – 120 C 121 – 140 D 141 – 165 E > 165 1 Knot = 1.9 km/hr
Based on Functional Use • Civil Aviation • Domestic • International • Military • Defense • Specialized Air Force Airports