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Ananda Kumara Professor and Deputy President Suzuka International University

Is Japan’s Labor Structure on T ransition ? Lessons from the Brazilian Labor in the Mie Prefecture. Ananda Kumara Professor and Deputy President Suzuka International University Mie Prefecture, Japan. The Issue of Foreigners: Japan Vs Selected Countries. Australia, New Zealand, Canada

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Ananda Kumara Professor and Deputy President Suzuka International University

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  1. Is Japan’s Labor Structure on Transition? Lessons from the Brazilian Labor in the Mie Prefecture Ananda Kumara Professor and Deputy President SuzukaInternational University Mie Prefecture, Japan

  2. The Issue of Foreigners: Japan Vs Selected Countries Australia, New Zealand, Canada 1. Share of Foreign Born Population Varies from 19% to 24% 2. Share of Foreign Ppn: 6% to20% Japan: Foreign Ppn 1.63(2011) (1.74% in 2008) =>Foreign Population: VERY SMALL?=>YES Japan does (did) not accept foreigners like in many other OECD countries! But………….

  3. Japan has been changing: The Issue of Population • 1. Japan’s population is on decrease! • 2007: 127.7mn->2050:95.15mn people • 2. Japan’s Investment in other countries, mainly in Asia has been on increase=>Production bases R being expanded to other countries (High Yen Value, High local costs, low costs in other countries, incentives for attracting FDI in other countries, trade deficit factors etc) “Human resources factor” ~ “Foreigners” Date/Ref: OECD, 2009

  4. Permanent Residents Vs Non-Permanent Residents

  5. Working Visa Statistics(persons) ⑥Professor(Below)

  6. Non-Permanent Residents & the Share of Foreign Students Foreign Students Spouse Trainees Pre-College Students

  7. An Example: Data on the Recruitment of Foreigners (2007)

  8. Foreign Registrants in Japan1991-2010:Country-Wise 2011Earth Quake & Atomic Energy Disaster 2009Assistance for Returning to Home Country 2008Lehman Crisis Others 1991Immigration Law Ammendment USA 4 Philippines Peru 3 Brazil 1China 2 Korea (N&S)

  9. 2011 2006 ①Korea(South&North)598,219 ②China 560,741 ③Brazil 312,979 ④Philippines 193,488 ①China 674,879 ②Korea (South&North)545,401 ③Brazil 210,032 ④Philippines 209,376 Note: China,Philippines Increased. Brazil, Korea decreased Note: Lehman Crisis, Earth Quake & Nuclear Accident in the East Japan etc. negatively affected the number of foreigners

  10. “Special Foreigners?” • Chinese and Koreans are very high in numbers • Foreigners in general, cannot engage in manual work! • => An Exception: • Descendants of Japanese migrants in the (other countries) South America. Special Permission to engage in any kind of activity, including those are restricted for foreigners in general!<=from Brazil, Peru, Argentine etc: Special Foreigners • The Largest number is from Brazil

  11. Age Composition of the Brazilians (2006~2011) (No of persons) Note: Thechange of the number of Brazilians in certain categories has been drastic between 2006 and 2011.

  12. Age Composition of the Brazilians 2006~2011(%) However, when the percentage in each catery is calculated, the change is not high as in case of the numbers

  13. A Questionnaire & Interview Survey in the Mie Prefecture (Brazilians) • Mie: Rural area, but with many manufacturing firms. Automobile (Honda, and subcontracting firms etc.) and electronics industries (Sharp, Toshiba, Sumitomo Denso etc.) are popular • 3rd largest ratio of foreign population among the prefectures • Many Brazilian workers (3rd largest number) • 1: Aichi Pref. (25.9), 2.Shizuoka Pref.(15.9), 3.Mie Pref.(7.1%)

  14. Registered Foreigners in the Mie Prefecture (Total)

  15. Brazilians in the Mie Prefecture 1993~2011 Many Brazilians left Mie/Japan after 2008 (Lehman Crisis)

  16. Some Basic Analysis of the Survey • Characteristics of the Brazilian Workers verses other BRICS workers

  17. Change of End Country Language Skills: "Before" Vs "Now" in Japan Language capability of the migrants improves as the time passes. However, the Russians in Japan and better prepared for coming to Japan, and have high Japanese language skills even before the arrival. The improvement over the time also is high for the Russians in Japan. In case of Chinese people, the level of improvement is very high, when compared to the arrival period. Brazilians show the lowest level. The level of improvement remains almost the same for the Indians and the Brazilians.

  18. Change of Language Skills: "Before" Vs "Now" in All Countries Overall, all the respondents had improved their language capability over the time. However, the language capability of the Chinese had been the highest among the BRICs participants. In addition, the Brazilians had achieved a higher language capability when compared to the early periods. (In ALLCOUNTRIES)

  19. Highest Academic Qualifications Point: Brazilians seem to represent the lowest academic qualifications among the BRICs migrants

  20. Why Migrate? Issue of the End Country and the Highest Educational Qualification Chinese tend to get their highest academic qualifications at the Migrated Country, both in Japan and other countries. This tendency is low among the Indians and Brazilians. This implies that the Indians and the Brazilians migrate mostly for “Work” while the Chinese consider the migrated country as the place for study and work. The Russians in between!

  21. Length of First Employment Brazilians represent the shortest length of first employment in Japan, while the Chinese represent the highest. Same for the USA. This is a clear difference in Japan over other countries. However, other countries seem to be different: UK: 1.Indians, 2.Russian, 3.Chinese, 4.Brazilians 1. Australia: 2.Russians, 3.Brazilains 4.Chinese 5.Indians

  22. Length of Current Employment General Trend: The length of current employment also is the shortest for the Brazilians, while theChinese represent the longest length. However, in the USA, the Brazilians represent the longest working experience.

  23. Q19 Attachment to the Job Indians and the Chinese seem to stick to the same job for a longer time. But, the Brazilians and the Russians seem to change jobs quite frequently. The situation is almost the same in other countries as well. Is this a “Country-Specific Factor”?

  24. Reasons for Job Change? • Brazilians (& Indians): 1.Better Job->2.Higher Studies ->3.Company Bankrupt->4.Discrimination • Russians: 1.Better Job->2.Higher Studies ->3.Discrimination->4. Company Bankrupt Chinese: 1.Better Job->2.Higher Studies ->3.Conflict with the boss->4.Discrimination All Migrants seem to attach priority for “better personal benefits” than the “company loyalty”. Discrimination also seems to be a severe problem in Japan and other countries.

  25. Information Gathering: Brazilians • Brazilians (in Japan and other countries) : seem to acquire information through friends and relatives. • Russians, Indians & Chinese mostly rely on the Internet, followed by the friends and relatives. • There is a clear difference between the Brazilians and others.

  26. Interaction with Home & Migrant Country Most Important: Brazilians/Indians: Home country family/Home country friends/Migrant country friends R more important Chinese/Russians: Home country family /Migrant country friends/Home country friends R more important Least Important: Chinese/Russians: Home country ethnic & religious groups Brazilians/Indians: Home country government

  27. Observations Case Study: 33% of workers in this company are foreigners. The majority (75%) are Brazilians (Mie Pref)

  28. Automobile Parts Manufacturing Firm: Observation 1. Accepting Brazilians, Bilingual Response

  29. Observation 2: Type of Work of the Brazilians is “Changing” (From Mie) • Brazilians R used to know as Manual Workers, and with low educational qualifications compared to many other foreigners=“Dekasegi” (contract workers etc.) • Since recently, some exceptions have started to come up • =>1. Brazilian girl, from a Brazilian school in Mie entered a Liberal Arts University under a special test=>Became a flight attendant (First in Japan) • 2. Brazilian Boy who graduated from a university in Mie became an academic in a national university (other prefecture): First in Japan • Brazilian Boy, graduated from a University joined a automobile parts manufacturing company, and got a promotion for a middle level managerial position (First in Japan) • Many Brazilian youth are now in Universities/Graduate Schools in Mie • Foreign students, including the Brazilians, teach various courses in schools. Language, culture, economy etc. are some topics! • =>These examples will not be just “exceptions”

  30. Integration with the Community • Current situation is different from the early years when the issues relating to neighborhood were “headaches” • However, still, Brazilians tend to interact more with the people from the home country. • Nevertheless, the above examples may provide some hints for understanding future trends. • Yet, foreigners in Japan as a whole have to struggle for “braking the walls” to move smoothly with the Japanese community.

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