OSHAcademy Course 705 Hazard Communication GHS/GHS 2012
Trainer Name Position Company Phone Email (Revise as needed)
Objective • Describe the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requirements and the four practical elements of the rule for the purpose of informing employees of classified chemicals, their hazards, and protective measures to prevent injury or illness. • Written Hazard Communication Program • Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) • Labeling • Employee Information and Training
HCS 2012 and the GHS • The new HCS 2012 is now aligned with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) that provides many benefits, including the following: • Provides a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets; • Improves the quality and consistency of hazard information in the workplace; • Helps reduce trade barriers; • Results in productivity improvements for American businesses that regularly handle, store, and use classified hazardous chemicals; • Provides cost savings for American businesses that periodically update safety data sheets and labels for classified chemicals. • Remember, the old HCS 1994 gave workers the right to know, but the new HCS 2012 gives workers the right to understand: this is a very important change, so look for it on the final exam!
The purpose of the HCS 2012 is to make sure that: • The hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified, and • information about the classified hazards is transmitted to employers and employees. • Classifying the potential hazards of chemicals, and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, may include: • Developing and maintaining a written hazard communication program; • Listing the hazardous chemicals present; • Labeling containers of chemicals in the workplace; • Labeling containers of chemicals being shipped to other workplaces; • Preparing and distributing SDSs to employees and downstream employers; • Developing and implementing employee training programs. • Remember, OSHA's new HCS 2012 is intended to be consistent with the provisions of the United Nations' GHS. (This will be on the exam!)
Scope and Application The HCS 2012 requires chemical manufacturers or importers to classify the hazards of chemicals which they produce or import. It requires all employers to provide information to their employees about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of: a hazard communication program, labels and other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and information and training.
Scope and Application In addition, the HCS requires distributors to transmit the required information to employers. Employers who do not produce or import chemicals need only focus on those parts of this rule that deal with establishing a workplace program and communicating information to their workers.
What are “Hazardous Chemicals”? • "Hazardous chemical" means any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified. • Physical hazards - reactions that could occur if chemicals are handled or stored improperly. This could result in a fire, explosion, and/or toxic gas release. • Health hazards - health effects caused directly by the chemicals themselves, not an injury resulting from a reaction. All chemical materials can cause health problems under the wrong conditions.
Forms of Hazardous Chemicals • Dusts - are finely divided particles. Example - wood dust. • Fumes - are even smaller particles usually formed when solid metal is heated and vaporized, and then condenses as tiny particles. • Fibers - are similar to dusts but are of an elongated shape. Examples - asbestos and fiberglass. • Mists - are liquid droplets that have been sprayed into the atmosphere. • Vapors - are gases formed when liquid evaporates. • Gases - are substances that are normally airborne at room temperature. A vapor is the gaseous phase of a substance which is a normally a liquid or solid at room temperature. • Solids - such as metal, treated wood, plastic. • Liquids - the most common form in the workplace.
The Three States of Matter Solid - A solid has a definite shape and volume regardless of the container into which it is placed. Liquid - A quantity of liquid has a definite volume, but takes on the shape of its container. Gas - A quantity of gas has the shape and volume of the container it occupies.
Exercise! List chemicals you use in the workplace. Check the boxes if you know the chemical’s Health Effects PPE Emergency Procedures
Chemical effects • The effects chemicals have on the various organs of the human body depend on several important factors: • The form of the chemical : Is the chemical a solid, liquid, or gas? • How the chemical Contacts the body: Is the chemical ingested, inhaled, absorbed, or injected? • The amount, or dose, the body receives. How much chemical makes its way into the body? • How toxic the chemical is. How poisonous is the chemical?
Chemical effects At excessive levels, substances contacting or entering the body may cause reversible or irreversible toxic effects.
Routes of Entry • Absorption- Contact with the skin may result in four possible actions: • Skin acts as effective barrier. • Skin reacts causing local irritation or skin destruction. • Skin sensitization. • Skin penetration to bloodstream.
Routes of Entry • Inhalation- Contact with respiratory system may result in two possible actions: • If particle larger than 5 microns, normally expelled. • If particle smaller than 5 microns, likely entry into alveolar sacs.
Routes of Entry • Ingestion- Contact with digestive system may result in two possible actions: • Detoxification through dilution, enzyme action, and elimination. • Absorption into the blood stream. A fourth route: Injection – harmful substance is injected below the skin
Control Strategies The Hierarchy of Controls 1. ENGINEERING 2. ADMINISTRATIVE 3. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Control Strategies • The Hierarchy of Controls • The first three strategies focus on doing something with the hazard. • 1. Elimination • 2. Substitution • 3. Engineering Controls • The last two strategies focus on doing something with behaviors to reduce exposure to the hazard. • 4. Administrative Controls. • 5. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Three ways to inform workers of hazardous chemicals. • 1. Container Labels • 2. Safety Data Sheet - SDS • 3. Training
Chemical manufacturers must… • 1. Assess hazards • 2. Distribute SDS • 3. Produce and revise label for container
Distributors must… • 1. Transmit SDS • 2. Retails/Wholesale distributors must: • Provide SDS to commercial accounts & post sign. • Provide hazardous chemical manufacturer address and phone number to employers who do not have commercial account.
Employers must… • 1. Develop a written Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program • 2. Maintain SDS’s • 3. Implement and perform container labeling • 4. Conduct employee information and training
Rules Apply To: Any chemical that employees may be exposed tounder normal conditions in the workplace or in a foreseeable emergency.
Rules do not apply to: Hazardous wastes Hazardous substances Tobacco or tobacco products Wood or wood products Articles Food or alcoholic beverages
Rules do not apply to: Drugs Consumer products or hazardous substances Nuisance particulates Ionizing and nonionizing radiation Biological hazards
Written Hazard Communication Program
Must be available to: Employees Employee representatives OSHA Representative
Three subject areas in the Written Program: Labeling container SDS maintenance Information and training
Other subject areas within the written program : List of hazardous chemicals Methods for non-routine tasks Pipe and piping systems Mobile unit procedures
Multi- employer procedures • Provide SDS to all employees • Inform other employees of precautionary measures • Inform other employees of labeling systems
Exercise! Using the labels the instructor has made available, list 3 chemical products, their hazard warning, and possible location of use in a given operation.
Chemicals List Hazard warning Product name Location of use Gasoline Flammable Shop, vehicles
Exercise! Using the sample written hazard communication program, follow along with the instructor as major portions of your program are completed.
Types of Containers Container labeling can be a very effective method to communicate the physical and health hazards of chemicals used in the workplace. The information on a container label will vary depending on what type of container it is and how it is used. We'll discuss labeling requirements under the old 1994 HCS and the new (GHS) labeling requirements adopted by the HCS 2012.
Types of Containers • Types of containers referred to in the hazard communication standard: • Shipped/Primary container labels - on shipped containers • Workplace/Secondary container labels - on employer containers • Stationary container labels - on large tanks, etc. • Portable containers - there are NO label requirements
The "old" Primary Container Label Requirements • Most containers shipped directly from the manufacturer or purchased from a distributor are called shipped or primary containers. Labeling information on these containers is usually adequate in communicating the hazards of the chemical. • Under the old HCS 1994, the chemical manufacturer, importer, or distributor must ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged or marked with the following three elements of information: • Identity of the hazardous chemical(s) • Appropriate hazard warnings, including target organ effects of the hazardous chemical, and • Name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.
Label Requirements Primary Container Label
The "new" Shipped - Primary Container Label Requirements • Under the new HSC 2012, labels on primary containers shipped from manufacturers or distributors, the container must be labeled, tagged or marked with the following six items: • Product Identifier • Signal words • Hazard Statements • Pictograms • Precautionary statements • Supplier identification
Workplace or Secondary Container Labeling • The employer must ensure that each workplace or secondary container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged or marked with either: • The information required on shipped container labels; or, • Product identifier and words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof, which provide at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals, and which, in conjunction with the other information immediately available to employees under the hazard communication program, will provide employees with the specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous chemical.
Label Requirements Secondary Container Label
Label Requirements Portable Container Label – Not Req’d
“Immediate use” …means that the hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.
Label Requirements Stationary Container Label
Other labeling requirements… Piping systems. Those pipes and piping systems containing or transporting hazardous chemicals must be labeled according to Division 2/H, Hazardous Materials.
Other labeling requirements… Never deface orremove labels Unless the container is immediately marked with the required information. No need to affix new label if old labels meet requirements.
Other labeling requirements… Displaying Labels Legible, and in English. May add other languages. Prominently displayed on container, or readily available in work area.