Balancing Water Supplies with Growing Demands Vic Kelson, Ph.D. Layne Hydro, a division of Layne Christensen Company
Outline • Introduction • Water availability • Water demands • Water supply management • Engineered systems
Introduction Why is water supply management necessary?
Economic Development Impact • National • Southwest and southeast • Regional • Great Lakes • Local • Greensburg, Indiana
Water AvailabilitySurface water & Groundwater Availability Annual/Seasonal Variation Water Quality Impacts
Water Availability:Groundwater Bedrock Aquifers Sand & Gravel Aquifers
Limits Water Availability: Other Factors • Groundwater withdrawals • Well interference • Wastewater assimilation • Recharge
Increases Water Availability • Water conservation • Water reuse • Graywater use • Nonpotable use • Aquifer recharge Light purple pipes distinguish a reclaimed water distribution system from a potable water distribution.
Water Demand Total Water Use Water Use by County Future Demand
Water Demand: Water Use by County
Water Demand: Future Use • Fastest growing counties in U.S. & Indiana • Surface water supplies will be fully developed by 2020 (Malcolm Pirnie, 2005)
Water Supply Management Approaches Individual Management Regional Planning Water Consortium Regionalization
Water Management Examples • Individual Management • Central Indiana • Regional Planning • Twin Cities and Northeastern Illinois • Water Consortium • Cincinnati, Ohio • Regionalization • State of Florida Water Districts
Engineered Systems It’s not only a planning problem
Source of Supply • Conservation • Production and distribution efficiency • Enhanced recharge • In-ground storage, aquifer storage and recovery
Conservation • End-user efficiency • Re-design our usage patterns optimize usage • Reuse and recycled water • Grey water systems? • Waste water for non-potable uses? • Infiltration or enhanced recharge for recycling?
Efficiency • Optimize process designs for process efficiency • Think in terms of the entire operational life • Minimize energy costs • Reduce chemical feeds • Develop strategies for operational management • Improved SCADA • Distributed process control and optimization • Intelligent distribution systems?
Induced recharge systems • Essentially, a re-engineered surface water intake • Improved reliability at low flow and in drought • Pre-treats surface waters by river bank filtration • Wellfield design is crucial • Optimize water-quality for the problem at hand • Implement operational plans
Storage and ASR • Are gravel pits suitable for storage? • Design RBF systems for reliability, reduced risk? • Is ASR feasible? • Store water when demand is low • Pump water when demand is high • Economics?
Questions? Thank You