Forensic Science • The application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
What is the difference between Forensic Science and Criminalistics?
History and Development • A fictional character from the 1887 novel, A Study in Scarlet, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle inspired interest in criminal investigation techniques. • Who is it?
The Inspiration for Forensic Science • “Elementary my Dear Watson”
The Real Faces of Forensics • Mathieu Orfila- Father of Forensic Toxicology (Detection of poisons)
Alphonse Bertillon • Father of Criminal Identification • Developed a method for distinguishing people in 1879 by taking a series of body measurements • Replaced by fingerprint I.D. in the early 1900’s
Francis Galton • Method for classifying fingerprints
Deone Lattes • Determined a way to identify the blood group of a dried bloodstain in 1915 • What are the blood types?
Calvin Goddard • U.S. Army colonel established the use of a comparison microscope for firearms examination • He’s gone “ballistic”
Albert S. Osborn • Document examination – 1910
Walter C. McCrone • Application of microscopic techniques to forensic science • Died in 2002 at the age of 86 • This is also a low magnification shot taken of a blood-image area 3-FB (small of the back) taken by Pellicori and Evans in 1978. Note the red color unlike blood (Figure 1), magnification 10X. (see: Judgement Day For The Turin Shroud, p. 87, Figure 16) The Shroud of Turin is a centuries old linen cloth that bears the image of a crucified man. A man that millions believe to be Jesus of Nazareth. Is it really the cloth that wrapped his crucified body, or is it simply a medieval forgery, a hoax perpetrated by some clever artist? Modern science has completed hundreds of thousands of hours of detailed study and intense research on the Shroud. It is, in fact, the single most studied artifact in human history, and we know more about it today than we ever have before. And yet, the controversy still rages.
Hans Gross • The Austrian Jurist Dr. Hans Gross (born Johann Baptist Gustav Gross, 1847-1915), was one of the earliest forensic scientists of modern record. In his ground-breaking text, System Der Kriminalistik (aka Criminal Investigation) published in 1893, he is widely credited with coining the term "criminalistics". Dr. Gross is also widely regarded as the grandfather of modern criminalistics. A criminalist, by his usage, would have been one who studies crime, criminals, and the scientific methods of their identification, apprehension, and prosecution.
Edmond Locard • Started a police laboratory in Lyons, France in 1910 using only a microscope and a spectrometer. • Later, he founded the Institute of Criminalistics at the University of Lyons • Locard’s Exchange Principle- every criminal can be connected to a crime by dust particles carried from the crime scene
Locard’s Exchange Principle • "It is impossible for a criminal to act, especially considering the intensity of a crime, without leaving traces of this presence." Edmond Locard
The Birth of the FBI - 1932 • Organized by director J. Edgar Hoover • National laboratory designed to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the country • Hoover was appointed director of the • Bureau of Investigation in 1924 and was • named head of the FBI when it was founded • 11 years later. He remained director until • his death in 1972 and came under attack late • in his tenure for using the FBI to harass • political activists and keeping • secret files on leaders.