Hans von Storch - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hans von Storch PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Hans von Storch

play fullscreen
1 / 24
Hans von Storch
263 Views
Download Presentation
lemuel
Download Presentation

Hans von Storch

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Ten years of implementing regional climate service – practice and lessons Hans von Storch with material provided by Dennis Bray, Insa Meinke, ArminehBarkhordarian, Ralf Weisse, Beate Ratter, Katharina Phillip, Marcus Reckermann, Katja Woth and after discussions with Nico Stehr, Werner Krauß, Roger Pielke, Jerry Ravetz and Reiner Grundmann Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht Germany 8 October 2014, Praha, EMS 2014 / ECAC

  2. Challenges in science – stakeholder interactions Many … here two issues out of a larger range

  3. A challenge: Different perceptionsamongscientists and thepublic Ratter, Philipp, von Storch, 2012: Between Hype and Decline – Recent Trends in Public Perception of Climate Change, Environ. Sci. & Pol. 18 (2012) 3-8 Bray, D., 2010: The scientific consensus of climate change revisited. Env. Sci. Pol. 13: 340 – 350

  4. Anotherchallenge: Stakeholder do hardly interlink directlywithclimatescientists How strongly do you employ the following sources of information, for deciding about issues related to climate adaptation? Regional administrators in German Baltic Sea coastal regions. Bray, 2011, pers. comm.

  5. One of the key elements involved in the challenges: The knowledge market

  6. Climate change is a „constructed“ issue. People hardly experience „climate change“. (“Constructed” does not mean "made up" or "invented“, but originating from an abstract context, which may be quite divorced from day-to-day reality. ) One construction is scientific, i.e., an „objective“ analysis of observations and interpretation by theories. The other construction is cultural, in particular maintained and transformed by the public media. Climate science is in a post-normal phase (where interest-led utility is a significant driver, and less so “normal” curiosity) Climate Change: Constructions Postnormal science Jerry Ravetz, Silvio Funtovicz, 1986 and earlier State of science, when facts uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent. von Storch, H., 2009: Climate Research and Policy Advice: Scientific and Cultural Constructions of Knowledge. Env. Science Pol. 12, 741-747 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2009.04.008

  7. Two different construction of „climate change“ – scientific and cultural – which is more powerful? Cultural: „Klimakatastrophe“ Scientific: man-made change is real, can be mitigated to some extent but not completely avoided Temperature Lund and Stockholm Storms

  8. The science-policy/public interaction is not an issue of the linear model of „knowledge speaks to power“. The problem is not that the public is stupid or uneducated. Science has failed to respond to legitimate public questions and has instead requested. “Trust us, we are scientists”. Climate scienceis taking place under post-normal conditions. The problem is that the scientific knowledge is confronted on the „explanation market“ with other forms of knowledge. Scientific knowledge does not necessarily “win” this competition. Non-sustainable claims-making by climate change (stealth) advocates to the public has lead to fatigue. Overselling goes with loss of “capital” of science, namely public trust. Knowledge market

  9. One tool: regional climate services Using our own experience with the 8-year experience in setting up and running the “Norddeutsches Klimabüro”, headed by Insa Meinke.

  10. Regional climateservice • An institution set up to enable communication between science and stakeholders • that is: making sure that science understands the questions and concerns of a variety of stakeholders • that is: making sure that the stakeholders understand the scientific assessments and their limits. • Provision of stakeholders with relevant knowledge, information and data about regional climate change, its perspectives and probable causes • Recognition and analysis of • post-normal situation (politicization of issues), • alternative knowledge claims, • other drivers also changing environmental conditions

  11. Regional climate service comprises … • Building a dialogue with public and deciders • Dealing with the issues of • present change (consistency with scenarios)- perspectives (projections vs. predictions)- reality of culturally constructedknowledge about climate, climate change and climate impact • confusion because of differently used terminology- discrimination between legitimate scientific knowledge and politically motivated knowledge claims- post-normal conditioning of climate research • Provision of - robust (homogeneous) data - robust knowledge von Storch, H. and I. Meinke, 2008: Regional climate offices and regional assessment reports needed. Nature geosciences 1 (2), 78

  12. Determiningsocialreality:the Hamburg surveysince 2008 Every spring since 2008, the survey the company FORSA is tasked to telephone-survey about 500 people in Hamburg about their opinions about climate and climate change. • Climate change is considered a relevant issue – when directly asked if so. Otherwise it is not a topic among the 10 most significant issues. • Attention and concern varies, without systematic changes. • Storm surges are considered the most important risks in Hamburg. Ratter, Phillip, ongoing work; Ratter, Philipp, von Storch, 2012: Between Hype and Decline – Recent Trends in Public Perception of Climate Change, Environ. Sci. & Pol. 18 (2012) 3-8

  13. Determiningsocialreality:theconfusionabout „Projectionsand predictions“ The IPCC provides the following operational definitions : “A projection is a potential future evolution …” and “A climate prediction or climate forecast is the result of an attempt to produce an estimate of the actual evolution of the climate in the future …” • But in practice these terms are mixed up.Bray and von Storch (2009) find that • about 29% of climate scientists call “most probable developments” projections, • while about 20% “possible developments” are labeled “predictions”. Bray, D., and H. von Storch, 2009: 'Prediction' or 'Projection'? The nomenclature of climate science. Sci. Comm. 30, 534-543

  14. Observed and projectedtemperature trends (1982-2011)The observed trends are beyond the range of natural variability. In DJA and MAM the change may be explained with GHG alone; in JJA and SON other causes are also needed. Consistency of recent regional change: Baltic Sea Region Observed CRU, EOBS (1982-2011) Projected GS signal, A1B scenario 10 simulations (ENSEMBLES) Red bars – natural variability – for detection of a non-natural cause Black bar – uncertainty of scenarios – for consistency of recent trend with cause described in scenarios

  15. Consistencyofrecentlocalchange:Storm surges in Hamburg Differencebetwennpeakheightsofstormsurges in Cuxhaven and Hamburg Main cause for recently elevated storm surges in Hamburg is the modification of the river Elbe – (coastal defense and shipping channel deepening) and less so because of changing storms or sea level. von Storch, H. and K. Woth, 2008: Storm surges, perspectives and options. Sustainability Science 3, 33-44

  16. Tools for regional climate servicing Klimaatlas / atlas klimatu http://www.ujscieodry-atlasklimatu.pl http://www.norddeutscher-klimaatlas.de • Raw data from 12 regional climate projections • Analyzed for Northern Germany and Pomeranian Bight • Interactive user interface • Similar system adapted by German Weather System

  17. Tools for regional climate servicing climate con/dis-sensus reports Assessments of knowledge about regional climate change- for the recent past (200 years), for present change and possible future change- consensus of what is scientifically documented- documentation of contested issues.for+ Baltic Sea (BACC) – BACC 1 done in 2008, BACC 2 in final editing phase+ Hamburg region (published November 2010)+ North Sea (in final phase)Full reports and condensed reports for general public. Reckermann, M., H.-J. Isemer and H. von Storch, 2008: Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Basin. EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., 161-162

  18. Tools for regional climate servicing homogeneous data sets of past and future change • The CoastDat data set: • Model generated data sets • Long (60 years) and high-resolution reconstructions of recent offshore and coastal conditions mainly in terms of wind, storms, waves, surges and currents and other variables in N Europe • Scenarios (100 years) of possible consistent futures of coastal and offshore conditions. • extensions – ecological variables and other regions: Baltic Sea, E Asia, Laptev Sea • Clients: • Governmental: various coastal agencies dealing with coastal defense and coastal traffic • Companies: assessments of risks (ship and offshore building and operations)and opportunities (wind energy) • General public / media: explanations of causes of change; perspectives and options of change GKSS in Geesthacht

  19. Some applications of • Ship design • Navigational safety • Offshore wind • Interpretation of measurements • Oils spill risk and chronic oil pollution • Ocean energy • Scenarios of storm surge conditions • Scenarios of future wave conditions Wave Energy Flux [kW/m] Currents Power [W/m2]

  20. Norddeutsches Klimabüro:activities and main clients

  21. So … what? Concluding remarks

  22. Climate change is a „constructed“ issue. People hardly experience „climate change“. One construction is scientific, i.e. an „objective“ analysis of observations and interpretation by theories. The other construction is cultural, in particular maintained and transformed by the public media. Climate science operates in a post-normal situation, which goes along with a tendency of politicizing science, and scientizing politics. Cultural science need to support climate science to deal with this challenge. The cultural and scientific constructions mix. The utility of scientific assertions in the political arena compete with their accuracy. Take home: knowledgeaboutclimate

  23. Climate Science needs to offer “Climate Service”, which includes the establishment of a dialogue with the public and stakeholders –recognizing the socio-cultural dynamics of the issue. Climate service must take into account competing alternative knowledge claims. Climate Service should adhere to the principle of sustainability – building trust by avoiding overselling and being explicit in spelling out contested issues. Climate Service is more than providing data to mostly anonymous clients; direct interaction is in many cases needed. Also precise language should be used, no more “the science is settled”, no cavalier usage of the term “predictions”, when “projections” are meant. Regional climateserviceasmechanismforinteractingwithpublicandstakeholders

  24. For further reading • von Storch, H., 2014: Klimaservice: Nachhaltig "Vorhersagen"? Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 31-32/2014, 41-46 • Krauss, W., and H., von Storch, 2012: Post-Normal Practices Between Regional Climate Services and Local Knowledge. nature and culture 7: 213-230 • Ratter, B., K. Philipp and H. von Storch, 2012: Between Hype and Decline – Recent Trends in Public Perception of Climate Change, Env. Sci. Pol.18, 3-8 • von Storch, H., I. Meinke, N. Stehr, B. Ratter, W. Krauss, R.A. Pielke jr., R. Grundmann, M. Reckermann and R. Weisse, 2011: Regional Climate Services illustratedwithexperiencesfrom Northern Europe. J. Env. Law Pol.1/2011, 1-15 • Bray, D., 2010: The scientific consensus of climate change revisited. Env. Sci. Pol. 13: 340 – 350 • von Storch, H., 2009: Climate Research and Policy Advice: Scientific and Cultural Constructions of Knowledge. Env. Sci. Pol. 12, 741-747 • von Storch, H. and I. Meinke, 2008: Regional climate offices and regional assessment reports needed. Nature geosciences 1, 78