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The Rise of Urban America

The Rise of Urban America

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The Rise of Urban America

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  1. The Rise of Urban America Public Policy Urban Affairs (PPUA) G6201 The 21st Century City: Urban Opportunities and Challenges in a Global Context Presentation of: Mary Huff Stevenson (UMass Boston) Russ Williams (Wheaton College)

  2. Urban America in the 19th Century

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  5. Russ Economic Pull Factors Affecting Migration To Cities 1890-1910 Textile manufacturing, introduced into the South in 1880s expands, drawing workers to Southern cities. By 1910, half of all U. S. textile manufacturing is being done in the South. 1900-1910 Cities in North and South grow rapidly. 1914-18 Expansion of manufacturing during WWI attracts whites and Blacks to cities in North and South. 1920s Displacement due to introduction of machinery is negligible. 1930-1940 Number of Black farmers decreases by 23 percent; from 749,000 to 574,000 (a decrease of 175,000). Number of white farmers decreases by 50,000 (less than 4 percent). Reverse migration by whites from cities is substantial, as some whites leave cities and take on subsistence farming to weather the Great Depression. (The number of white farm owners increased by 74,000. (12 percent) 1940s War industries (steel, refineries, textiles) spur city development

  6. Mary Immigration and Emigration by Decade: 1901-90(Numbers in thousands)

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  8. Mary Foreign Born Americans (includes all places over 2,500)

  9. Estimated Migration of Black Americans from the South Mary

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  13. Russ Effect of External Economies and External Diseconomies on Short Run Average Costs

  14. Russ • Why were cities such magnets for population? • Cities are efficient places for production • Agglomeration Economies • (e.g Auto Mile, Hollywood, Wall St.) • Knowledge Spillovers • Modern Equivalent: Clusters (Michael Porter)

  15. Russ Figure 3.3 A Typical Long Run Average Cost Curve

  16. Russ • Scale Economies • Large Manufacturing Facilities • Services that require a critical population mass (e.g Department Stores, Museums) • Major League Sports • Public Transportation

  17. Russ Transportation Costs for a Resource-Oriented Firm (also called a materials-oriented firm) A Resource Site Market

  18. Russ Transportation Costs for a Market-Oriented Firm B Resource Site Market

  19. The Weber Location Polygon for Two Resource Sitesand a Single Market Russ C • Steel Production • Taconite from Duluth • Coal from West Virginia • Limestone from Michigan

  20. Table 4.1 Percent of Metropolitan Population Living • in Central Cities • Year Percent in Central Cities • 1910 64.6 • 1920 66.0 • 1930 64.6 • 1940 62.7 • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • 1950 58.6 • 1960 51.4 • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • 2000 37.4 • Growth of Suburbs • Forces of Centralization up to 1920 (Centripetal Forces) • Forces of Decentralization after 1920 (Centrifugal Forces) Mary

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  24. Mary HOW DOES LAND GET ITS VALUE? The Game of Monopoly

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  26. Russ The Bid Rent Curve and the effect of a change in product price or a change in transportation costs

  27. Russ Bid Rent Curves for two different uses of land and the resulting land distribution

  28. Russ The Residential Paradox

  29. Russ Family and Neighborhood Income Profile, 100 Largest Metro Areas, 1970-2000 (Percentage Shares) Russ

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  31. Russ Total Cost A Transportation Cost Labor Cost Site Cost Miles from Central City

  32. Russ The Location Decision under Conditions of High Site Costs and Rising Transportation Costs Total Cost B Transportation Cost Labor Cost Site Cost Miles from Central City

  33. Russ The Location Decision under Conditions of Zero Transportation Costs and Steeply Falling Labor Costs Total Cost C Site Cost Labor Cost Transportation Cost Miles from Center City

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