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European Exploration and the Discovery of America

European Exploration and the Discovery of America

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European Exploration and the Discovery of America

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  1. European Exploration and the Discovery of America Unit 1, Lesson 1

  2. Essential Idea • Contact between the “Old” and “New” Worlds led to the exchange of many things but ultimately led to conflicts.

  3. The “New World” • Where? • The “New” World, which was the Americas • Migration: • The first people in America likely migrated over from Asia over a land bridge during the last Ice Age • People Arrive in the Americas

  4. Mesoamerica • Location: • Mesoamerica, which is present day Mexico and Central America • Climate: • The climate was warm and stable • Agricultural revolution: • Time period when early Americans learned to grow crops because of the good climate

  5. Cultures of the New World • Culture: • Centralized because of agriculture, especially maize/corn, allowing people to stay in one place • Benefits: • Civilizations were able to grow into complex societies with high populations • Problems: • Much easier to conquer

  6. Cultures in Mesoamerica • Mayans: • Developed complex architecture, mathematics, and calendars • Aztecs: • Built sophisticated, highly populated cities

  7. Cultures of the New World • Location: • Present day United States • Climate: • Not as dependable as Mesoamerica • Food Source: Agriculture in stable climates, animal herds in less stable areas • Culture: • Nomadic because these people tended to move from place to place following food sources (animals) • Why follow animals? • Less stable weather limited effects of agricultural revolution • Benefits: • Spread out and difficult to conquer (United States government will struggle with Indians for decades) • Problems: • Could not develop into advanced civilizations

  8. Cultures in Present-Day Western United States • Anasazi and Cahokia: • These groups built complex civilizations but likely fell apart due to drought (unstable climate)

  9. Cultures in Present-Day Eastern United States • Cherokee: • Lived in more stable region of United States (the Southeast) and managed to grow maize, beans, and squash

  10. Iroquois Confederacy • Iroquois Confederacy: • Northeastern tribes formed this government, loosely joining their tribes together • Confederacy: • Union of small governments with a WEAK central government

  11. The “Old World” • Where? The “Old World,” which was the Eastern Hemisphere (Europe, Africa, Asia) • Reasons to start exploring- • The Catholic Crusades exposed Europeans to products in Asia such as silk and spices • The “Great Silk Road” became the major trade route that connected Europe and Asia • This route was dangerous, slow, and expensive to use • European countries started looking for other routes, over water, to access Asia

  12. European Exploration: Portugal • Portugal: • Route- Went around Africa to access Asia • Prince Henry the Navigator established a school dedicated to exploration • Portugal developed the caravel, a boat able to travel Africa’s rough coast • While exploring Africa, Portugal was exposed to African slavery and started trading for slaves

  13. European Exploration: Spain • Spain: • Route- Went west across the Atlantic Ocean • Spain commissioned Christopher Columbus to look for a western route • On October 12, 1492, Columbus “discovered” (disputed!) the “New World” when he landed on islands in the Caribbean Sea, later called the West Indies • European Exploration

  14. The Columbian Exchange • Columbian Exchange- the transfer of goods, crops, diseases, etc. between the “old” and “new” worlds after 1492 • The “New World” brought: gold, silver, corn, tobacco, and other vegetables • The “Old World” brought: sugar, rice, horses, cows, and DISEASE, and SLAVES • Future implications: • 1. Disease would wipe out Indian populations and make conquering them easier in the future • 2. Slavery went on to become vital to much of the economy of the United States, and also became very controversial

  15. Spain vs. Portugal? • Issue: Spain and Portugal were exploring and claiming new lands • Why an issue? • Both were Catholic, and the Pope did not want two Catholic countries fighting • Solution: • Treaty of Tordesillas- Pope set a “line of demarcation” to divide Spain’s and Portugal’s lands • Consequence: • Spain was the first country to explore what is now the United States