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The Chloroplast Structure
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The Chloroplast Structure

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  1. The Chloroplast Structure

  2. The Chloroplast Structure Thylakoids are specialized membrane structures in which photosynthesis takes place. Collections of thylakoids stack like pancakes to form the grana. The areas that are between the grana are called the stroma.

  3. Stages of Photosynthesis There are two stages that make-up the photosynthesis process. The Light Dependent Process or Light Reaction Requires the direct energy of light to make energy carrier molecules that are used in the second process. The Light Reactions occurs in the grana. The Light Independent Process or Dark Reaction The products of the Light Reaction are used to form C-C covalent bonds of carbohydrates (sugars). The Dark Reactions occurs in the stroma.

  4. Photosystems Arrangements of chlorophyll and accessory pigments that are packed into thylakoids. Many Prokaryotes have only one photosystem, Photosystem II (it was numbered thus because, it was most likely the first to evolve, it was also the second one discovered). Eukaryotes have Photosystem II plus Photosystem I. Photosystem I uses chlorophyll a, in the form referred to as P700. Photosystem II uses a form of chlorophyll a known as P680. Both "active" forms of chlorophyll a function in photosynthesis due to their association with proteins in the thylakoid membrane.

  5. Photophosphorylation The process of converting energy from a light-excited electron into the pyrophosphate bond of an ADP molecule.

  6. Photosystem II and I (old view)

  7. Chemiosmotic Synthesis of ATP

  8. Dark Reaction The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts (where would it occur in a prokaryote?). Carbon dioxide is captured by the chemical ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). RuBP is a 5-C chemical. Six molecules of carbon dioxide enter the Calvin Cycle, eventually producing one molecule of glucose. The reactions in this process were worked out by Melvin Calvin (shown to the left).

  9. First Step The first stable product of the Calvin Cycle is phosphoglycerate (PGA), a 3-C chemical. The energy from ATP and NADPH energy carriers generated by the photosystems is used to attach phosphates to (phosphorylate) the PGA.

  10. Second Step 12 molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate (also known as phosphoglycerate (PGA), a 3-C), two of which are removed from the cycle to make a glucose. The remaining PGAL molecules are converted by ATP energy to reform 6 RuBP molecules, and thus start the cycle again.