Decreasing Enrollments / Increasing Manpower Needs:Solutions for Attracting Students to Computer Science Wayne Summers / Rodrigo Obando TSYS Department of Computer Science Columbus State University November 17, 2006
Decreasing Enrollments • Increasing Manpower Needs
Undergraduate CS enrollments 2002-2005 • The number of new undergraduate majors dropped another 21%, from 15,950 to 12,532 (see Figure 7). • This follows last year’s 10% drop in new majors and a 23% drop the year before that. • Accounting for the fact that more departments are reporting to the survey now than did three years ago, we effectively have seen a halving of the number of new majors entering our programs over a three-year period. • Total enrollment in Bachelor's programs is down nearly 14% from last year and 30% compared to three years ago. Taulbee Survey (http://www.cra.org/CRN/articles/may06/taulbee.html)
The U.S. ranks 17th in the world for ratio of science and engineering degrees.
Undergraduate CS enrollments 2002-2005 • it is not yet clear when the decline in our undergraduate program enrollments will end. • The double-digit percent decrease in bachelor’s production observed this year is likely to continue for the next several years. • Nationwide, only one-quarter of 1 percent of incoming freshmen women listed computer science as a probable major, according to a 2004 survey from the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA. That’s down from a high of 4.25% in the mid-1980s. Taulbee Survey (http://www.cra.org/CRN/articles/may06/taulbee.html)
Undergraduate CS enrollments 2002-2005 • Coupled with the declining representation of women in our undergraduate programs, our ability to produce a workforce that is sufficiently educated technically to meet the needs of the job market in computing is being severely challenged. Taulbee Survey (http://www.cra.org/CRN/articles/may06/taulbee.html) • The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated in 2004 that 1.5 million new computer and IT-related jobs are expected to be added to the nation’s workforce by 2012.
WHY? • The decrease in enrollments seems to be driven by two major factors: • misinformation in the popular media • lack of means to motive students in our schools
Projected Employment 2004-2014 (in thousands) 2004 2014 % change Computer and information systems managers 280 353 +26.1% Computer specialists 3,046 4,003 +31.4% Computer hardware engineers 77 84 +10.1% Total, all professional-level IT occupations 3,403 4,440 +30.5% Total, all occupations 145,612 164,540 +13.0% Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, November 2005 Myth 1: Software Jobs Have Disappeared • There was a slight dip in IT-sector employment after 2000. • Recent data show that this trend has reversed, and that there are now more jobs in this sector than at any time in history. • Projections from the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate strong growth over the next decade:
IT Jobs Outlook Brightens “The study found that, despite intensifying competition, offshoring between developed and developing countries can benefit both parties. The study cited data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) which indicates that more IT jobs are available today in the U.S. than at the height of the dot com boom. This trend is evident despite a significant increase in offshoring over the past five years. In fact, U.S. IT employment in 2004 was 17% higher than in 1999, and the BLS data reveals that IT jobs are predicted to be among the fastest-growing occupations over the next decade.” Globalization and Offshoring of Software (A Report of the ACM Job Migration Task Force) - http://www.acm.org/globalizationreport/
The 10 fastest-growing jobs between now and 2014http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/nextjobboom/
Top 10 best jobshttp://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/bestjobs/ • MONEY Magazine and Salary.com researched hundreds of jobs, considering their growth, pay, stress-levels and other factors. These careers ranked highest. • 1. Software Engineer • 2. College professor • 7. Computer IT analyst
Continuing a pattern that has been evident for decades, recent bachelor’s and master’s engineering graduates and computer science graduates at the bachelor’s level are more likely than graduates in other fields to be employed full time after graduation, and upon entering the workforce, they are rewarded with higher salaries. Source: National Science Foundation. InfoBrief, December 2005 Among science graduates, the median annual salaries of computer and information sciences (CIS) graduates were the highest as of October 2003. CIS graduates with bachelor’s degrees earned a median annual salary of $45,000, and those with master’s degrees earned a median annual salary of $60,000. Source: Computing Research Association, December 2005 IT Salaries Remain High
Model Curriculum for K–12 Computer Science “Computer science is an established discipline at the collegiate and post-graduate levels. Oddly, the integration of computer science concepts into the K–12 curriculum has not kept pace in the United States. As a result, the general public is not as well educated about computer science as it should be, and a serious shortage of information technologists at all levels exists and may continue into the foreseeable future.” http://www1.acm.org/education/k12/k12final1022.pdf
SOLUTIONS • Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) • Teacher Enrichment in Computer Science (TECS) workshops • Java Engagement for Teacher Training (JETT) • Alice Workshops for Middle School students • Revised Curriculum • Game Programming • Information Technology • Other Outreach Activities
Computer Science Teachers Association The Computer Science Teachers Association is a membership organization that supports and promotes the teaching of computer science and other computing disciplines. CSTA provides opportunities for K-12 teachers and students to better understand the computing disciplines and to more successfully prepare themselves to teach and learn. http://csta.acm.org/
CSU and the CSTA • Teacher Enrichment in Computer Science (TECS) • Teacher Engagement for Computer Science (TECS) - September 25, 2006 • Understanding and Building Basic Networks - November 14, 2006 • Having Fun with Computers – January 25, 2007 • Programming Basic Applications – March 20, 2007 • Computer Game Programming – 5/2007 • Java Engagement for Teacher Training (JETT)
Revised Curriculum • Game Programming • Information Technology • ABET • Robotics • Other Ideas?
Outreach Activities • Computer Programming Competition • Web Development Competition • Speakers Bureau • Raise Awareness • In-service Workshops • Summer Camps
Resources • The New Educational Imperative: Improving High School Computer Science Education:Computer Science and the National Competitiveness Debate -http://csta.acm.org/Publications/Publications.html • ACM K-12 CS Model Curriculumhttp://csta.acm.org/Curriculum/sub/k12final1022.pdf • CSTA Web Repository of K-12 Computer Science Teaching Resourceshttp://csta.acm.org/Resources/sub/WebRepository.html • Software Globalization and Employmentby eminent Stanford computer science scholar Eric Roberts
Resources • Teacher Enrichment in Computer Science Workshops (TECS) - http://tecs.acm.org/ • JETT - http://jett.acm.org/ • K-12Linux Project - http://www.k12ltsp.org/ • Partners in Learning, Microsoft -http://www.microsoft.com/education/partnersinlearning.mspx • Resources for Teachers from CSTA and IBM - http://csta.acm.org/Resources/sub/RecommendedResources.html • IBM Academic Initiativehttp://ibm.com/university
Resources • New ACM brochure to advanced computing fields: ACM-Careers-Brochure-V7.pdf • Website referenced in brochure http://computingcareers.acm.org • NCWIT Resources on drawing more women into computing: http://www.ncwit.org/es.undergrad.html
Resources • Why Choose CSE? (videos) - http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/ugrad/prospective/outreach.html • Celebrate Computer Science Education: http://sws.lhps.org/Default.aspx?alias=sws.lhps.org/computerscienceed