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CIS664-Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

CIS664-Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

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CIS664-Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining

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  1. CIS664-Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Data Warehousing and OLAP Technology Vasileios Megalooikonomou Dept. of Computer and Information Sciences Temple University (based on notes by Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber)

  2. Agenda • What is a data warehouse? • A multi-dimensional data model • Data warehouse architecture • Data warehouse implementation • From data warehousing to data mining

  3. What is Data Warehouse? • Defined in many different ways, but not rigorously. • A decision support database that is maintained separately from the organization’s operational database • Supports information processing by providing a solid platform of consolidated, historical data for analysis. • “A data warehouse is asubject-oriented, integrated, time-variant,and nonvolatilecollection of data in support of management’s decision-making process.”—W. H. Inmon

  4. Data Warehouse—Subject-Oriented • Organized around major subjects, such as customer, product, sales. • Focusing on the modeling and analysis of data for decision makers, not on daily operations or transaction processing. • Provide a simple and concise view around particular subject issues by excluding data that are not useful in the decision support process.

  5. Data Warehouse—Integrated • Constructed by integrating multiple, heterogeneous data sources • relational databases, flat files, on-line transaction records • Data cleaning and data integration techniques are applied. • Ensure consistency in naming conventions, encoding structures, attribute measures, etc. among different data sources • E.g., Hotel price: currency, tax, breakfast covered, etc. • Before data is moved to the warehouse, it is transformed to a common scheme.

  6. Data Warehouse—Time Variant • The time horizon for the data warehouse is significantly longer than that of operational systems. • Operational database: current value data. • Data warehouse data: provide information from a historical perspective (e.g., past 5-10 years) • Every key structure in the data warehouse • Contains an element of time, explicitly or implicitly • But the key of operational data may or may not contain “time element”.

  7. Data Warehouse—Non-Volatile • A physically separate store of data transformed from the operational environment. • Operational update of data does not occur in the data warehouse environment. • Does not require transaction processing, recovery, and concurrency control mechanisms • Requires only two operations in data accessing: • initial loading of dataand access of data.

  8. Data Warehouse vs. Heterogeneous DBMS • Traditional heterogeneous DB integration: • Build wrappers/mediators on top of heterogeneous databases • Use a Query driven approach • When a query is posed to a client site, a meta-dictionary is used to translate the query into queries appropriate for individual heterogeneous sites involved, and the results are integrated into a global answer set • Complex information filtering, compete for resources • Data warehouse: update-driven, high performance • Information from heterogeneous sources is integrated in advance and stored in warehouses for direct query and analysis

  9. Data Warehouse vs. Operational DBMS • OLTP (on-line transaction processing) • Major task of traditional relational DBMS • Day-to-day operations: purchasing, inventory, banking, payroll, registration, accounting, etc. • OLAP (on-line analytical processing) • Data analysis and decision making (major task of data warehouse system) • Distinct features (OLTP vs. OLAP): • User and system orientation: customer vs. market • Data contents: current, detailed vs. historical, consolidated • Database design: ER + application vs. star + subject • View: current, local vs. evolutionary, integrated • Access patterns: update vs. read-only but complex queries

  10. OLTP vs. OLAP

  11. Why Separate Data Warehouse? • High performance for both systems • DBMS— tuned for OLTP: access methods, indexing, concurrency control, recovery • Data Warehouse—tuned for OLAP: complex OLAP queries, multidimensional view, consolidation. • Different functions and different data: • missing data: Decision support requires historical data which operational DBs do not typically maintain • data consolidation: DS requires consolidation (aggregation, summarization) of data from heterogeneous sources • data quality: different sources typically use inconsistent data representations, codes and formats which have to be reconciled

  12. Agenda • What is a data warehouse? • A multi-dimensional data model • Data warehouse architecture • Data warehouse implementation • From data warehousing to data mining

  13. From Tables to Data Cubes • A data warehouse is based on a multidimensional data model which views data in the form of a data cube • A data cube, such as sales, allows data to be modeled and viewed in multiple dimensions • Dimension tables, such as item (item_name, brand, type),ortime(day, week, month, quarter, year) • Fact table contains measures (such as dollars_sold) and keys to each of the related dimension tables • In data warehousing literature, an n-D base cube is called a base cuboid. The top most 0-D cuboid, which holds the highest-level of summarization, is called the apex cuboid. The lattice of cuboids forms a data cube.

  14. Cube: A Lattice of Cuboids all 0-D(apex) cuboid time item location supplier 1-D cuboids time,item time,location item,location location,supplier 2-D cuboids time,supplier item,supplier time,location,supplier time,item,location 3-D cuboids item,location,supplier time,item,supplier 4-D(base) cuboid time, item, location, supplier

  15. Conceptual Modeling of Data Warehouses • Modeling data warehouses: dimensions & measures • Star schema: A fact table in the middle connected to a set of dimension tables • Snowflake schema: A refinement of star schema where some dimensional hierarchy is normalized into a set of smaller dimension tables, forming a shape similar to snowflake • Fact constellations: Multiple fact tables share dimension tables, viewed as a collection of stars, therefore called galaxy schema or fact constellation

  16. item time item_key item_name brand type supplier_type time_key day day_of_the_week month quarter year location branch location_key street city province_or_street country branch_key branch_name branch_type Example of Star Schema Sales Fact Table time_key item_key branch_key location_key units_sold dollars_sold avg_sales Measures

  17. supplier item time item_key item_name brand type supplier_key supplier_key supplier_type time_key day day_of_the_week month quarter year city location branch city_key city province_or_street country location_key street city_key branch_key branch_name branch_type Example of Snowflake Schema Sales Fact Table time_key item_key branch_key location_key units_sold dollars_sold avg_sales Measures

  18. item time item_key item_name brand type supplier_type time_key day day_of_the_week month quarter year location location_key street city province_or_street country shipper branch shipper_key shipper_name location_key shipper_type branch_key branch_name branch_type Example of Fact Constellation Shipping Fact Table time_key Sales Fact Table item_key time_key shipper_key item_key from_location branch_key to_location location_key dollars_cost units_sold units_shipped dollars_sold avg_sales Measures

  19. A Data Mining Query Language, DMQL • Cube Definition (Fact Table) define cube <cube_name> [<dimension_list>]: <measure_list> • Dimension Definition ( Dimension Table ) define dimension <dimension_name> as (<attribute_or_subdimension_list>) • Special Case (Shared Dimension Tables) • First time as “cube definition” • define dimension <dimension_name> as <dimension_name_first_time> in cube <cube_name_first_time>

  20. Defining a Star Schema in DMQL define cube sales_star [time, item, branch, location]: dollars_sold = sum(sales_in_dollars), avg_sales = avg(sales_in_dollars), units_sold = count(*) define dimension time as(time_key, day, day_of_week, month, quarter, year) define dimensionitem as(item_key, item_name, brand, type, supplier_type) define dimensionbranch as (branch_key, branch_name, branch_type) define dimension location as (location_key, street, city, province_or_state, country)

  21. Defining a Snowflake Schema in DMQL define cube sales_snowflake [time, item, branch, location]: dollars_sold = sum(sales_in_dollars), avg_sales = avg(sales_in_dollars), units_sold = count(*) define dimension time as(time_key, day, day_of_week, month, quarter, year) define dimensionitem as(item_key, item_name, brand, type, supplier(supplier_key, supplier_type)) define dimensionbranch as (branch_key, branch_name, branch_type) define dimension location as (location_key, street, city(city_key, province_or_state, country))

  22. Defining a Fact Constellation in DMQL define cube sales [time, item, branch, location]: dollars_sold = sum(sales_in_dollars), avg_sales = avg(sales_in_dollars), units_sold = count(*) define dimension time as(time_key, day, day_of_week, month, quarter, year) define dimensionitem as(item_key, item_name, brand, type, supplier_type) define dimensionbranch as (branch_key, branch_name, branch_type) define dimension location as (location_key, street, city, province_or_state, country) define cube shipping [time, item, shipper, from_location, to_location]: dollar_cost = sum(cost_in_dollars), unit_shipped = count(*) define dimension time astime in cube sales define dimensionitem asitem in cube sales define dimensionshipper as (shipper_key, shipper_name, locationas location in cube sales, shipper_type) define dimension from_location as location in cube sales define dimension to_location as location in cube sales

  23. Measures: Three Categories A data cube measure is a numerical function that can be evaluated at each point in the data cube space. • distributive: if the result derived by applying the function to n aggregate values is the same as that derived by applying the function on all the data without partitioning. • E.g., count(), sum(), min(), max(). • algebraic:if it can be computed by an algebraic function with M arguments (where M is a bounded integer), each of which is obtained by applying a distributive aggregate function. • E.g.,avg(), min_N(), standard_deviation(). • holistic:if there is no constant bound on the storage size needed to describe a subaggregate (the opposite of algebraic). • E.g., median(), mode() (the most frequently occurring items), rank().

  24. A Concept Hierarchy: Dimension (location) Defines a sequence of mappings from low-level concepts to higher-level concepts all all Europe ... North_America region Germany ... Spain Canada ... Mexico country Vancouver ... city Frankfurt ... Toronto L. Chan ... M. Wind office

  25. Specification of hierarchies Schema hierarchy day < {month < quarter; week} < year Set_grouping hierarchy {1..10} < inexpensive Partial or total order View of Warehouses and Hierarchies

  26. Multidimensional Data • Sales volume as a function of product, month, and region Dimensions: Product, Location, Time Hierarchical summarization paths Defined by concept hierarchies Region Industry Region Year Category Country Quarter Product City Month Week Office Day Product Month

  27. Date 2Qtr 1Qtr sum 3Qtr 4Qtr TV Product U.S.A PC VCR sum Canada Country Mexico sum All, All, All A Sample Data Cube Total annual sales of TV in U.S.A.

  28. Cuboids Corresponding to the Cube all 0-D(apex) cuboid country product date 1-D cuboids product,date product,country date, country 2-D cuboids 3-D(base) cuboid product, date, country

  29. Browsing a Data Cube • Visualization • OLAP capabilities • Interactive manipulation

  30. Typical OLAP Operations • Roll up (drill-up): summarize data • by climbing up hierarchy or by dimension reduction • Drill down (roll down): reverse of roll-up • from higher level summary to lower level summary or detailed data, or introducing new dimensions • Slice and dice: • project and select • Pivot (rotate): • reorient the cube, visualization, 3D to series of 2D planes. • Other operations • drill across: involving (across) more than one fact table • drill through: through the bottom level of the cube to its back-end relational tables (using SQL)

  31. A Star-Net Query Model Customer Orders Shipping Method Customer CONTRACTS AIR-EXPRESS ORDER TRUCK PRODUCT LINE Time Product ANNUALY QTRLY DAILY PRODUCT ITEM PRODUCT GROUP CITY SALES PERSON COUNTRY DISTRICT REGION DIVISION Each circle is called a footprint Location Promotion Organization

  32. Agenda • What is a data warehouse? • A multi-dimensional data model • Data warehouse architecture • Data warehouse implementation • From data warehousing to data mining

  33. Design of a Data Warehouse: A Business Analysis Framework • Four views regarding the design of a data warehouse • Top-down view • allows selection of the relevant information necessary for the data warehouse • Data source view • exposes the information being captured, stored, and managed by operational systems • Data warehouse view • consists of fact tables and dimension tables • Business query view • sees the perspectives of data in the warehouse from the view of end-user (profit, etc)

  34. Data Warehouse Design Process • Top-down, bottom-up approaches or a combination of both • Top-down: Starts with overall design and planning (mature) • Bottom-up: Starts with experiments and prototypes (rapid) • From software engineering point of view • Waterfall: structured and systematic analysis at each step before proceeding to the next • Spiral: rapid generation of increasingly functional systems, short turn around time, quick turn around • Typical data warehouse design process • Choose a business process to model, e.g., orders, invoices, etc. • Choose the grain (atomic level of data) of the business process • Choose the dimensions that will apply to each fact table record • Choose the measure that will populate each fact table record

  35. other sources Extract Transform Load Refresh Operational DBs A Three-Tier Warehousing Architecture Monitor & Integrator OLAP Server Metadata Analysis Query Reports Data mining Serve Data Warehouse ROLAP MOLAP Data Marts Data Sources Data Storage OLAP Engine Front-End Tools

  36. Three Data Warehouse Models • Enterprise warehouse • collects all of the information about subjects spanning the entire organization • Data Mart • a subset of corporate-wide data that is of value to a specific groups of users. Its scope is confined to specific, selected groups, such as marketing data mart • Independent vs. dependent (directly from warehouse) data mart • Virtual warehouse • A set of views over operational databases • Only some of the possible summary views may be materialized

  37. Data Warehouse Development: A Recommended Approach: Incremental and Evolutionary Multi-Tier Data Warehouse Distributed Data Marts Enterprise Data Warehouse Data Mart Data Mart Model refinement Model refinement Define a high-level corporate data model

  38. OLAP Server Architectures • Relational OLAP (ROLAP) • Use relational or extended-relational DBMS to store and manage warehouse data and OLAP middle ware to support missing pieces • Include optimization of DBMS backend, implementation of aggregation navigation logic, and additional tools and services • greater scalability • Multidimensional OLAP (MOLAP) • Array-based multidimensional storage engine (sparse matrix techniques) • fast indexing to pre-computed summarized data • Hybrid OLAP (HOLAP) • User flexibility, e.g., low level: relational, high-level: array • Specialized SQL servers • specialized support for SQL queries over star/snowflake schemas

  39. Agenda • What is a data warehouse? • A multi-dimensional data model • Data warehouse architecture • Data warehouse implementation • From data warehousing to data mining

  40. Efficient Data Cube Computation • Data cube can be viewed as a lattice of cuboids • The bottom-most cuboid is the base cuboid • The top-most cuboid (apex) contains only one cell • How many cuboids in an n-dimensional cube with Li levels for dimension i? • Materialization of data cube (pre-computation) • Materialize every (cuboid) (full materialization), none (no materialization), or some (partial materialization) • Selection of which cuboids to materialize (based on size, sharing, access frequency, etc.), exploitation of the materialized cuboids during query processing, update of materialized cuboids during refresh

  41. Cube Operation • Cube definition and computation in DMQL define cubesales[item, city, year]: sum(sales_in_dollars) compute cube sales • Transform it into a SQL-like language (with a new operator cube by, introduced by Gray et al.’96) SELECT item, city, year, SUM (amount) FROM SALES CUBE BY item, city, year • Need compute the following Group-Bys (date, product, customer), (date,product),(date, customer), (product, customer), (date), (product), (customer) () () (city) (item) (year) (city, item) (city, year) (item, year) (city, item, year)

  42. Cube Computation: ROLAP-Based Method • Efficient cube computation methods (full materialization) • ROLAP-based cubing algorithms (Agarwal et al’96) • Array-based cubing algorithm (Zhao et al’97) • Bottom-up computation method (Bayer & Ramarkrishnan’99) • ROLAP-based cubing algorithms • Sorting, hashing, and grouping operations are applied to the dimension attributes in order to reorder and cluster related tuples • Grouping is performed on some subaggregates as a “partial grouping step” • Aggregates may be computed from previously computed aggregates, rather than from the base fact table

  43. Indexing OLAP Data: Bitmap Index • Index on a particular column • Each value in the column has a bit vector: bit-arithmetic is fast • The length of the bit vector: # of records in the base table • The i-th bit is set if the i-th row of the base table has the value for the indexed column • not suitable for high cardinality domains (only using compression) Base table Index on Region Index on Type

  44. Indexing OLAP Data: Join Indices • Join index: JI(R-id, S-id) where R (R-id, …)  S (S-id, …) • Traditional indices map the values to a list of record ids • It materializes relational join in JI file and speeds up relational join — a rather costly operation • In data warehouses, join index relates the values of the dimensionsof a star schema to rows in the fact table (registers the joinable rows of two relations) • E.g. fact table: Sales and two dimensions city and product • A join index on city maintains for each distinct city a list of R-IDs of the tuples recording the Sales in the city • Join indices can span multiple dimensions

  45. Efficient Processing of OLAP Queries • Determine which operations should be performed on the available cuboids: • transform drill-down, roll-up, etc. into corresponding SQL and/or OLAP operations, e.g, dice = selection + projection • Determine to which materialized cuboid(s) the relevant operations should be applied. Exploring indexing structures and compressed vs. dense array structures in MOLAP

  46. Metadata Repository • Meta data is the data defining Warehouse objects. A Meta data repository contains the following: • Description of the structure of the warehouse • schema, view, dimensions, hierarchies, derived data defn, data mart locations and contents • Operational meta-data • data lineage (history of migrated data and transformation path), currency of data (active, archived, or purged), monitoring information (warehouse usage statistics, error reports, audit trails) • The algorithms used for summarization • The mapping from operational environment to the data warehouse • Data related to system performance • warehouse schema, view and derived data definitions • Business data • business terms and definitions, ownership of data, charging policies

  47. Data Warehouse Back-End Tools and Utilities • Data extraction: • get data from multiple, heterogeneous, and external sources • Data cleaning: • detect errors in the data and rectify them when possible • Data transformation: • convert data from legacy or host format to warehouse format • Load: • sort, summarize, consolidate, compute views, check integrity, and build indices and partitions • Refresh: • propagate the updates from the data sources to the warehouse

  48. Agenda • What is a data warehouse? • A multi-dimensional data model • Data warehouse architecture • Data warehouse implementation • From data warehousing to data mining

  49. Data Warehouse Usage • Three kinds of data warehouse applications • Information processing • supports querying, basic statistical analysis, and reporting using tables, charts and graphs • Analytical processing • multidimensional analysis of data warehouse data • supports basic OLAP operations, slice-dice, drill-down roll-up, pivoting • mostly summarization/aggregation tools • Data mining • knowledge discovery from hidden patterns • supports associations, constructing analytical models, performing classification and prediction, and presenting the mining results using visualization tools. • Differences among the three tasks