ProhibitionComplete the following based on your homework & the slides provided…. • Identify the six most important concepts that your class should know regarding the Prohibition era. NO STATISTICS…. Generalize or make factual inferences based on statistics
Prohibition …“The noble experiment” 18th Amendment… 29) The Volstead Act of 1919... 30) How well was prohibition enforced?
The “speakeasy’… . . .
Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages 1910-1929 . 32) How much did drinking decrease & what groups increased their drinking?
“I believe this diabolical thing- Prohibition was brought about by old maids, broken down preachers and politicians, rack-eteers, grafters and others looking for notoriety, and its administration is conducted by much the same class. Legislation by hypocrites- administration by grafters- is the politics of America. I believe that whiskey is the least harmful, and best all-round remedy we have in pharmacopeia.”-Dr. Harry L. Randal
Prohibition 31) What effect did prohibition have on organized crime? • Crime got worse… • Police funding: $11.4 Million • Arrests for Drunkenness: 41% • Arrests of Drunken Drivers: 81% • Homicides, Assault & Battery: 13% • Number of Federal Convicts: 561% • Federal Prison Population: 366% • Expenditures on prisons: 1,000%
Al “Scarface” Capone1899-1947 Chicago gang leader…“The most notorious gangster in the history of the nation”
"I make my money by supplying a public demand. If I break the law, my customers who number hundreds of the best people in Chicago, are as guilty as I am. The only difference is that I sell and they buy. Everybody calls me a racketeer. I call myself a businessman.“ - Al Capone
Capone’s income by 1929… 100 million per year… • $60,000,000 Speakeasies, distilleries & breweries) • $25,000,000 (Gambling • $10,000,000 (Brothels) • $10,000,000 other rackets 600 gangster employees
The fall of Al Capone… • 1931 convicted of tax evasion • 11 years in prison… Eventually sent to Alcatraz • Released 1939 due to weak health… the effects of VD • Died in 1947 (Age 49)
RESISTANCE TO MODERNITY Objective… Summarize the areas of resistance to the cultural changes of the 1920s.
Immigration Restriction 33) Why restrict immigration?…. What immigrants were targeted?...
34) How did Madison Grant in his work, The Passing of the Great Race, reinforce anti-immigrant bias?... Explain what Grant was referring to when he used the term “race suicide?”
35) Restrictions embodied in the 1921 Immigration Act…Restrictions embodied in the (Johnson-Reed) Immigration Act of 1924?... • Coolidge signing the 1924 Immigration Act * 1921 Act – Based on the 1910 census…Limit immigration from a given country to 3% of those living in the U.S. 1924 Act – Based on the 1890 census…Limit immigration from a given country to 2% of those living in the U.s. *
Immigration: Red = Northern & Western Europe Blue = Southern & Eastern Europe
"Guarding the Gates Against Undesirables"Current Opinion, April, 1924, pp. 400-1. The struggle continues over the Johnson bill to restrict immigration to two per cent of each national group domiciled here in 1890. The opposition comes mainly from certain groups of Southern and Eastern Europeans, and individuals representing them. Specifically the opposition comes from Congressmen representing districts in which compact blocks of Italians, Poles, Russians, Greeks and Slavs now reside. Against these unassimilated and unassimilable peoples the proposed measure would discriminate. They all represent the newer immigration. Before 1890 the United States received mainly folk from northern and western Europe. Since 1890 the majority have come from southern and eastern Europe. By basing quotas upon the 1890 census Italian immigration would be cut down from over forty thousand to under four thousand, the Russians from over twenty thousand to under two thousand, and the Poles from about twenty thousand to five thousand, admissible in one year. The new bill would not greatly reduce the number who would come in from the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, France and Germany. These groups have made no protest against a measure which aims to cut the immigration total approximately in half, from about three hundred and sixty thousand to about one hundred and eighty thousand persons…. There is no blinking the fact that certain races do not fuse with us and have no intention of trying to become Americans. The Poles, for example, are determined to remain Polish. No doubt this is good Polish patriotism, but it is very poor Americanism. The Polish Diet, as the Indianapolis News points out, has adopted a resolution asking the government to request the Holy See to use its influence with the Catholic hierarchy in the United States to permit the continued use of the Polish language in Polish Catholic churches and parochial schools. A dispatch from Warsaw declares that the resolution is part of an effort to stop "the systematic Americanization of the Poles"! Nevertheless, as the News declares, if we are to permit any Poles to come here in the future, "the systematic Americanization" of them must continue.
The Sacco & Vanzetti Case Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3SuTTcj2u8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdstXviXwYA
The Klan Rises Again… 4.5 million members in 1924 “100% Americanism” 6) What attitudes & beliefs supported the KKK’s motto of “100 percent Americanism?”
Primary Document Analysis& Role PlayKu Klux Klan: Letters to the Government Objective… To describe the activities of the Ku Klux Klan during the 1920’s..
KKK Letter (Role Play) Part I: • The setting is President Coolidge’s Oval Office • The date is early 1928. • In an effort to learn more about the KKK, the President has invited one member of your group to meet with him. • Remember you are the author of your letter. • Members of your group help you develop your ideas. • You have 3 minutes to speak to him about the Klan. • As you listen to each speaker, take notes on what is being said. Part II: • Return to your groups and serve as advisors to the president and formulate an official White House statement about the Ku Klux Klan. • Each group’s statement should be approximately four sentences in length.
K.K.K. Meeting 1923 KKK Rally 1925: Anti-immigration march in N.J.
1924: KKK Spring festival 1923: Postcard
The Ku Klux Klan 36) What caused the resurgence of the KKK?... The targets of the new Klan?... 37) How did it expand its scope and use new techniques of communication?... 38) How did the Klan present itself? 39) Where and when was it the most powerful? 40) What were the various reasons it lost influence?
The Tulsa, Oklahoma Race RiotsMay 31 & June 1, 1921“one of the worst race riots in U.S. history” • 301 dead • 1,500 African American homes, 600 businesses destroyed • Additionally, 21 churches, 21 restaurants, 30 stores, 2 theaters, a hospital, a bank, a post office, libraries & schools. • The cause…
Religious Fundamentalismv.Modernists The Scopes Trial V.
Religious Fundamentalism 41) The nature of the fundamentalist revival in the1920s… 42) - The target of fundamentalists… - The target of modernists (Darwinists)…
Fundamentalists… The Holy Bible State of TE –Butler Act Wm. J. Bryan… Modernists… Charles Darwin & Evolution… ACLU… John Scopes… Clarence Darrow… “The Monkey Trial” Butler Act – “for any teacher in any of the public schools of the state to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals.”
Clarence Darrow vs. Wm. J. Bryan Modernist - Fundamentalist Defense - Prosecution
John Scopes - Defendant
Two categories:ProsecutionDefense • ACLU • Fundamentalists • Charles Darwin • John Scopes • Modernists • Clarence Darrow • Holy Bible • Origin of the Species • State of Tennessee • Butler Act • Wm J. Bryan • Evolution What is the significance of this trial?
Two categories:ProsecutionsDefense • ACLU • Fundamentalists • Charles Darwin • Jon Scopes • Modernists • Clarence Darrow • Holy Bible • Origin of the Species • State of Tennessee • Butler Act • Wm J. Bryan • Evolution What is the significance of this trial?
I. We aren't even holding our own