Project management Over the course we will look at: • Projects and their features. • The project Life Cycle, Project Planning and the Project Manager’s role. • Over a dozen different tools and techniques for effective project management.
Self Study (aka Homework) • You will have a go at using the tools and techniques both in class and through homework, self-study which will be set at the end of each taught session. You’ll need to allow a few hours each week to ‘do’ the self-study homework.
Self-study (aka homework) • For this Project Management module it is really important for you to do the homework after each session, and before the next session. Project management is a practical as well as theoretical subject. Unless you practice, through the homework, the tools and techniques which we cover in the sessions, you will not fully learn the skills of effective project management.
Project Management - pitfalls • One of the pitfalls with project management is that there is a lot of jargon which can be used: Gantt Charts, network diagrams, activity on the arrow diagrams, critical path analysis, work breakdown structures, PERT, project scheduling, precedence diagrams, dependency diagrams, et cetera. This course will keep jargon to a minimum.
An introduction to Project management • This module will look at the tried and trusted tools and techniques of project management, the ones which actually work! • Will also be doing some practical exercises; you learn effective project management by working on real life projects; it is not something you can learn just from reading a book. • We will not be looking at Microsoft project
Programme for today Introductions and Expectations Concepts of Project Management Simulated project – Scoping Comfort break ? Simulated project – Stakeholders Simulated project – Success Criteria Summary and close
Why do we need project management tools & techniques? Because we live in a world of limited resources and not enough time. There will always be more to do than time and resources will allow. Project Management tool & techniques, if used regularly & appropriately, help us make more effective use of our time.
Introductions and Expectations • Who are you? name, job and responsibilities what do you consider to be your strengths in the work environment (e.g. decisive, good communicator, assertive, good at empathising, good listener, etc) • What previous experience do you have of managing projects? • What are your expectations from today?
The aims for today’s session • To clarify what we mean by the term ‘project’ • To introduce you to some of the tools to begin defining and managing projects • To give you the chance to try out some of these tools
Project management Concepts, Terms and Definitions.
What does the term ‘project’ mean to you? Class group exercise • What does the term ‘project’ mean to you and your group? • What do you and your group think of or associate with the term ‘project’?
Definition of project • “An activity with a fixed start and end point, managed with finite resources, involving change and often achieved by the collective effort of the team of people” (IPM)
Another definition of a project • “A set of temporary activities conducted by ad hoc organisations” (D. Olson, 2001)
Another definition of a project • “ …..an endeavour in which the human (or machine), material and financial resources organised in a novel way, to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, within constraints of cost and time,so as to deliver beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives” (R.Turner 1995)
Yet another definition of project • “A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities. Having one goal or purpose that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification” (Artto, 2002)
Project Management – a definition ? • Project Management might be defined as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet (or exceed?) stakeholder needs and expectations from the project”
Features of a project • A start and a finish • Is a unique activity with a visible output • May involve uncertainty and risk • Involves a team coming together specifically for the project • A budget • Non repetitive tasks, sequential order • Use of resources (including human resources) • A single point of ultimate responsibility • Clearly defined team roles • Clear aims, objectives, goals
Terms often confused with ‘project’ • Process – a series of steps needed to perform a routine activity (e.g. purchasing). A project may contain many processes. • Programme – work performed towards achieving a long term goal (e.g. a health awareness programme). Programmes may never achieve all their goals, and may comprise a series of projects.
Examples of types of project and their size • Individual – decorating your bedroom • Group – organising a wedding • Organisation – construction company, building the Millennium bridge in London • Project Organisation – creation of a separate independent organisation specifically for accomplishing a particular project, e.g. the Olympic games committee • Multinational – design construction of Concorde
The project life cycle NOTE - We will be referring to this simple model throughout the rest of the course
Project Life Cycle(At its Simplest) • PLAN • DO • REVIEW Plaaaaaaaaan-Do Plan-Do-Plan-Do-Plan-Do Or Plan-Do, Re-plan, Re-do
Project Life Cycle • Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) • Conception Phase (The Idea) • Definition Phase (The Plan) • Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN • Implementation Phase (The Work) DO REVIEW
The Conception phase – the idea • Essentially - What are we going to do? • For small projects an informal discussion might adequate • For larger projects, a more formal review and discussion processes required. • Key questions to answer should be: • Should you do it? What is the benefit and do the benefits outweigh the costs? • Can you do it? Is it technically feasible and are there enough resources?
So…………Let’s get started • That temptation at this point is to get started (after minimal planning). This is the traditional British approach. • It gives the appearance of immediate activity and progress. We are busy ‘doing’. • But it leads to mistakes and waste. • We end up with Plan-Do, Do-Re-Do, Re- plan, Re-Do, RE-Do, Re-Plan etc
Project Life Cycle • Consequently… • Projects over runs • Cost too much • Don’t achieve desired result • So we... • Hunt for the guilty • Persecute the innocent • Promote the uninvolved
But I am too busy to spend time planning!…Planning allows you to: • Ensure that people only work on activities which are needed, and do them correctly the first time, not waste time doing unnecessary activities. • Anticipate potential problems and take preventative action to deal with them before they happen. • Do things in the right order at the right time, which should prevent things going wrong later.
The project manager’s adage(a light hearted motto) You can have any two of three things in a project: • You can get it done on time • You can get it done within budgeted cost • You can get it done properly/well • If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost. • If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time. • Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do.
Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations? A study by Hughes (1986) identified three main reasons for projects failing. • 1 a lack of understanding of project management tools and an over reliance on project management software • 2 communication problems • 3 failure to adequately adjust to changes that occur during the course of the project
Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations? • Hughes notes that many managers are apt to lose sight of the project. By focusing on the project management software and managing this rather than the actual project! • Michalski (2000) observes that “good communication is the key successful project management”.
Remember “If you fail to plan, you fail to do”. “Proper Planning Prevents Poor performance”
So we will use a Project Life Cycle like this • Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) • Conception Phase (The Idea) • Definition Phase (The Plan) • Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN • Implementation Phase (The Work) DO REVIEW
The Definition phase – the plan • Review the reasons for the project. • Describing detail what results are to be produced. • Create a list of all the work to be performed. • Produce a detailed project schedule. • Calculate budgets. • Describe how risk is to be managed. • Identify any assumptions about the project. • Identify and define the roles of the project’s team members.
The Initiation phase – start up • Assign people to project roles, ensure they are available when needed. Negotiation may be necessary. • Give and explain all tasks to team members. • Set up systems and accounts to track personnel information and financial expenditure. • Announce the project’s start, what it will produce. When it will start when it will finish
Implementation phase – the do • Doing the tasks as laid out in your plan • Regularly comparing the actual performance with the plan, knowing and anticipating when things are not going according to schedule • Fixing problems that arise. • Keeping everyone informed
The Evaluation phase – the wrap up or review • Get the customer’s approval of final results. • There may be formal project hand over to the client • Complete any paperwork. • Hold a post project evaluation to recognise achievements and discuss lessons learned
Roles in projects – who is responsible for what? One of the the benefits of project management techniques is the opportunity to clarify roles. • Project sponsor – person who’s paying for it • Project champion - person who wants to see it happen • Project manager – will ensure it happens • Project team – will make it happen • Stakeholders – those affected by it and with an interest in it, but not necessarily part of it. • Audience – we’ll consider them later!
Attributes of an effective project manager Group exercise • What you think are the attributes/qualities required to be an effective project manager?
Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are • Excellent time management skills • ‘Can do’ proactive attitude • Adaptable, flexible. • Fair – respecting different people’s viewpoints • Committed to the team and the project’s goals • Decisive and realistic • Excellent communication skills • Leadership • Assertiveness
Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are • Be prepared to ‘roll up their sleeves and get their hands dirty’ • Foresight • Planning skills • Knowledge of the subject / area of work • Be prepared to walk, if necessary i.e. leave! • A sense of humour ?
The tools of & for project management • There are numerous tools which can be for managing projects, some of them complex, some of them simple. • We will look at over a dozen tried and tested tools and techniques which can be used for effective project management.
Our tools for today • QUAD Chart analysis • The QUAD chart is a very simple yet extremely effective tool. Project scoping – enables you to define what you do before you start. • Stakeholder analysis – simple version helps you understand and manage the different relationships that matter to the project.
The QUAD chart • A very simple yet powerful tool. • Used to help us clarify exactly what our project is all about.
Project ManagementSimulation Exercise • We will carry out a simulated project
Project ManagementSimulation Exercise “The Gourmet Breakfast” • We are going to use a relatively simple example of something that you should be familiar with in order for you to be able to understand and practice on a real life project.
The Problem • Just got up? • Feeling kind of hungry? • Fancy a nice breakfast ? • What choice do we have?