WritingIntroductionsandConclusions Mrs. Davis’ 5th Grade Language Arts Classes Council Traditional School
Which Modes? Only DESCRIPTIVE and EXPOSITORY papers have introductions and/or conclusions!
Why Introductions? Your introduction is the reader’s FIRST IMPRESSION of your work. It should make him/her want to read the rest of your paper.
Why Conclusions? Your conclusion is the reader’s LAST IMPRESSION of your work. It should make him/her remember your paper and set you apart from the other thousands of papers.
Where? Your introduction is your FIRST paragraph, and your conclusion is your LAST paragraph!
How Long? Introductions and conclusions should have 3 or 4 sentences each!
Introductions:How To • Introductions should have 2 parts: a HOOK and a TOPIC SENTENCE. • Start with a 2-3 sentence HOOK to “grab” the reader’s attention. • Great hooks include (SHUDS): -Statistics -HISMOP (hyperbole, idiom, simile, metaphor, onomatopoeia, personification) -Unusual Facts -Dialogue -Scenarios
Introductions:How To • Finish with a TOPIC SENTENCE to tell the reader what topic you’ve chosen to write about and how you feel about it. I simply despise my nasty room. OR My room is the most disgusting place on the planet. • Sometimes your topic sentence may be included in one of your hooks, which is OK!
BoringHooks Sample Prompts: Describe your room. OR Explain reasons you like/dislike your room. • Do you like your room? OR • What do you like about your room? OR • Do you know why I hate my room?
StatisticHook #1 People magazine conducted a survey last summer of parents across the country. The survey results revealed that 92% of parents are unhappy with state of their children’s rooms. I’m afraid that my my parents would agree with that statistic, because my room is disgusting! NOTE: When using a STATISTICS hook, be sure to tell WHO did the research. You can also tell WHEN the research was conducted!
StatisticHook #2 I conducted a survey at school last week that asked my peers what their parents nag them about most. According to my results, a messy room sends Mom over the edge quicker than a flea finds a dog.I’m sure that once I have kids of my own, I’ll get it, but for now, I feel my peers’ pain. My room really is nasty.
HISMOPHook #1 & 2 My room is a garbage dump! Dad swears that I’ll need to call in a hazardous materials team to help me clean it. Although Dad has a flair for the dramatic, I have to hand it to him this time: my room is pure gross! OR Shhh...Did you hear that squeaking? I don’t know if it’s the family of rats that have moved into my closet or the shelf brackets whining under the weight of the junk atop them, but whatever it is, it can’t be good. Simply stated, my room is filthy!
Unusual FactHook #1 The last attempt to clean my room took twelve hours. The things I uncovered during that task could make a goat’s stomach turn. Unfortunately, after only three short weeks, my room is absolutely gross again!
Unusual FactHook #2 I read in a scientific magazine that the average bedroom has thousands of different types of bacteria. My room isn’t an average room, so I would bet it has millions of different types. I wanted to call in some professionals to do the task, but Mom wouldn’t hear of it. Today is the day I face the music and clean my putrid room.
DialogueHook #1 “My, heavens, Jamie,” Mom screamed last night, “clean up this pig sty!” Mom and I don’t see eye to eye on this issue. To her my room is a pig sty, but to me it’s paradise. NOTE: When using a DIALOGUE hook, be sure to PUNCTUATE it correctly with commas and quotation marks, and don’t forget to add a TAG!
DialogueHook #2 “Help! I can’t find my way out!” Mom shouted from my room after delivering some freshly folded clothes. Like every other kid on the planet, I hate to clean my room. Unfortunately, Dad has had it with my clutter, so he’s making me clean my lair. My room’s not really messy, it’s just “creatively organized.”
ScenarioHook #1 Poor old Mom waltzed into my room yesterday to collect my laundry, and she’s still trying to find her way out of the maze of clothes, games, and books littering the floor. I think I’ll send a search team after her if she doesn’t surface sometime today. That room is a mess!
ScenarioHook #2 As I lay on the sofa watching Saturday morning cartoons, I notice my dog dragging a pair of pants, a remote control airplane, and then a science book into the den. I soon realize that all of these items have come from my room. You know your room is a mess when even your DOG nags you to clean it.
Some Final HOOK Tips… • It’s OK to combine different types of hooks in your introduction. • Try to add some humor in your hooks; it’s a great way to “grab” the reader!
Conclusions: T ? • Restate your TOPIC SENTENCE and how you feel about your topic (don’t use the word-for-word topic sentence you used to finish your introduction). • Remind readers of your SUPPORTING DETAILS (triangles) in one sentence (don’t forget to separate each detail with a comma). • Ask a thoughtful QUESTION.
Sample Conclusion As you can see, my room is beyond nasty. There are mountains of clothes on the floor, colonies of dust bunnies under the furniture, and petrified food in every crevice. Do you think it’s time to clean it up?
POP QUIZ • Read each prompt and introduction. • Tell what type(s) of hook was/were used. • Underline the topic sentence (remember, some topic sentences may be included in the hook).
POP QUIZ PROMPT:Describe your favorite school lunch. INTRODUCTION: As I walked into the cafeteria this afternoon, my mouth immediately began to water. I knew at once that the hard-working cafeteria staff had prepared my favorite entrée. Their fried chicken is divine!
POP QUIZ PROMPT:Explain reasons people should not litter. INTRODUCTION: Scientists report that roadside litter poses many health and safety risks. These risks effect not only people but wildlife as well. Please do your part to minimize the risks: don’t litter!
POP QUIZ PROMPT:Describe a picnic lunch. INTRODUCTION: “Hey, let’s have a picnic lunch at the park!” Dad chirped at the breakfast table. We all agreed that it was a great idea and couldn’t wait. No one can put a picnic lunch together like dear old Mom.
POP QUIZ PROMPT:Explain reasons people should exercise every day. INTRODUCTION: A 2005 study by Harvard Medical School found that 8 out of every 10 Americans do not get daily exercise. The study called the U. S. an unfit nation. It’s time to take a stand! Put down the remote, get off the couch, and get some exercise.