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Chapter 4 Understanding Student Differences

Chapter 4 Understanding Student Differences

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Chapter 4 Understanding Student Differences

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  1. Chapter 4Understanding Student Differences Viewing recommendations for Windows: Use the Arial TrueType font and set your screen area to at least 800 by 600 pixels with Colors set to Hi Color (16 bit). Viewing recommendations for Macintosh: Use the Arial TrueType font and set your monitor resolution to at least 800 by 600 pixels with Color Depth set to thousands of colors.

  2. Overview • The nature and measurement of intelligence • Learning styles • Gender differences and gender bias Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  3. What traditional intelligence tests measure • Spearman’s two factor theory of intelligence • General factor—affected performance on all intellectual tests • Specific factor—affected performance only on specific intellectual tests Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  4. Limitations of intelligence tests • The appraisal of intelligence is limited by the fact that it cannot be measured directly • Intelligence tests sample intellectual capabilities that relate to classroom achievement better than they relate to anything else • Intelligence test scores can be improved with systematic instruction • Anything that enhances classroom performance will likely have a positive effect on intelligence test performance Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  5. Contemporary views of intelligence • David Weschler—Global Capacity View • Robert Sternberg—Triarchic Theory • Howard Gardner—Multiple Intelligences Theory Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  6. The three components of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Practical ability Creative ability Analytical ability Using prior knowledge and cognitive skills to solve problems and learn new information Solving novel and unfamiliar problems Adapting to one’s environment Shaping one’s environment Selecting a different environment Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  7. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  8. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  9. Learning styles • Reflectivity and Impulsivity • Field-dependence and Field-independence • Mental Self-government Styles Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  10. Reflectivity versus Impulsivity • Reflectivity • In a problem solving situation, the student prefers to spend more time collecting information and analyzing its relevance to the solution before offering a response • Impulsivity • In a problem solving situation, the student responds quickly with little collection or analysis of information Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  11. Field-Dependence versus Field-Independence • Field-Dependence • A person’s perception of and thinking about a task or problem are strongly influenced by such contextual factors as additional information and other people’s behavior • Field-Independence • A person’s perception of and thinking about a task or problem are influenced more by the person’s knowledge base than by the presence of additional information or other people’s behavior Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  12. Legislative Executive Judicial Monarchic Hierarchic Oligarchic Anarchic Global Local Internal External Liberal Conservative Sternberg’s Mental Self-Government Styles (1994) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  13. Gender differences • Males outscore females on the following tests: • Visual-spatial ability • Mathematical reasoning • College entrance • Females outscore males on the following tests: • Memory • Language use Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  14. What is gender bias? Gender bias is… Responding differently to male and female students without having sound educational reasons for doing so. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  15. How gender bias affects students • Course selection • Math and science courses • Career choices • Familiarity with and interest in tools of science, perceived self-efficacy, encouragement from parents and teachers • Class participation • “Loss of voice” Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  16. Working toward gender equity in the classroom • Use work arrangements and reward systems that encourage all students to value thorough understandings of subject or task and that recognize group success as well as individual accomplishment • Emphasize materials that highlight the achievements and characteristics of women and women’s groups • Talk about the practical, everyday applications of math and science Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  17. Reducing the gender gap in technology • Teachers’ attitudes and actions must demonstrate that computers are equally important to both genders • Teachers should try to embed computer technology in reading, writing, and history, not just in math and science • Girls need more role models of female computer users in schools and in the workplace • Parents may need training in raising the math and technology expectations of their female children Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  18. Reducing the gender gap in technology (cont’d) • Girls need computer camps, programs, and classes that are exclusively for them • Teachers might try to increase access time or require turn-taking practices on the computer • Schools and teachers need to select software with female main characters and computer tools that appeal to girls Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company

  19. End ofChapter 4Understanding Student Differences