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Chapter 5: Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics
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Chapter 5: Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics

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  1. Chapter 5: Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics • Overview: • Competitors, competitive rivalry, competitive behavior and competitive dynamics • Market commonality and resource similarity: Building blocks of competitor analysis • Competitive actions: Awareness, motivation and ability • Factors driving competitor’s competitive actions • Competitor’s response to actions taken against it • Competitive dynamics in slow, fast and standard-cycle markets

  2. Introduction and Definitions • Competitors • Firms operating in the same market, offering similar products and targeting similar customers • Competitive Rivalry • Ongoing set of competitive actions and competitive responses occurring between competitors as they contend with each other for an advantageous market position • Competitive Behavior (offensive and defensive) • Set of competitive actions and competitive responses the firm takes to build or defend its competitive advantages and to improve its market position • Competitive Dynamics • Total set of actions and responses of all firms competing within a market - all competitive behavior

  3. From Competitors to Competitive Dynamics (Figure 5.1)

  4. A Model of Competitive Rivalry (Figure 5.2)

  5. Competitor Analysis and Competitive Rivalry • Competitor Analysis (Chapter 2) • Is the first step to understanding competitive rivalry and identifying who your direct competitors are • 2 components to assess: Market Commonality and Resource Similarity • The question: ‘To what extent are firms competitors’? • Number of markets in which firms compete against each other and similarity of firms resources • Direct competitors have high market commonality & high resource similarity

  6. Competitor Analysis and Competitive Rivalry • Market Commonality • The number of markets with which the firm and a competitor are jointly involved and the degree of importance of the individual markets to each • Each industry composed of various markets which can be subdivided into segments • Example: Automobile industry • Firms with greater multimarket contact are less likely to attack but more likely to respond when attacked • Thus, multimarket competition reduces competitive rivalry

  7. Competitor Analysis and Competitive Rivalry • Resource Similarity • Extent to which firm’s tangible/intangible resources are comparable to competitor’s in type and amount • Can result in similar strengths and weaknesses and similar strategies being pursued • The more similar the types and amounts of resources the more direct the competition is between two firms • Combination of market commonality & resource similarity indicate a firm’s direct competitors

  8. A Framework of Competitor Analysis

  9. Drivers of Competitive Actions/Responses • Market commonality & resource similarity influence three drivers of competitive behavior • Awareness • Extent competitors recognize degree of mutual interdependence that results from market commonality and resource similarity • Affects the extent to which the firm understands the consequences of its competitive actions and responses • Motivation • Firm's incentive to take action, or to respond to a competitor's attack, as it relates to perceived gains and losses • A firm is more likely to attack a rival with whom it has low market commonality and attacked firms are more likely to respond when market commonality is high • Ability • Firm's resources that allow competitive action and flexibility to respond • Without available resources a firm lacks the ability to respond

  10. Competitive Rivalry • Competitive Rivalry • Ongoing set of competitive actions and competitive responses occurring between competitors as they contend with each other for an advantageous market position • Competitive Action • Strategic or tactical action firm takes to build or defend its competitive advantages or improve its market position • Competitive Response • Strategic or tactical action the firm takes to counter effects of a competitor's action

  11. Competitive Rivalry • What are the strategic and tacticalactions? • Strategic actions/responses: market-based moves that signify a significant commitment of organizational resources to pursue a specific strategy • Difficult to implement and reverse • Tactical actions/responses: market-based moves that involve fewer resources to fine-tune a strategy that is already in place • Easier to implement and reverse

  12. Additional Factors Affecting the Likelihood of Attack • First Mover Incentives • Firm that takes an initial competitive action to build or to defend its competitive advantages or to improve its market position • Second Movers • Late Movers • Organizational Size • Affects types of competitive actions encountered • Small firms – more flexible, nimble, and quicker and more likely to launch competitive actions • Large firms – tend to initiate more competitive actions but limit the types used • Quality • Customer perception that the firm's goods or services perform in ways that are important to customers, meeting or exceeding expectations • Lower quality = lower attack/response likelihood

  13. Additional Factors Affecting the Likelihood of Response • Types and effectiveness of the competitive action • Strategic – elicit fewer responses due to resources committed • Tactical – elicit much faster responses • Actor’s Reputation • Actor: Firm taking an action or response (in the context of competitive rivalry) • Reputation: positive or negative attribute ascribed by one rival to another based on past competitive behavior • Firms are more likely to respond to market leaders • Dependence on the Market • Extent to which a firm's revenues or profits are derived from a particular market • High market dependence = more likely to respond

  14. Competitive Dynamics: 3 Market Cycles • Competitive Dynamics: Total set of actions and responses of all firms competing within a market • Slow-Cycle Markets • Markets in which the firm's competitive advantages are shielded from imitation for long periods of time, and in which imitation is costly • Build a one-of-a-kind competitive advantage which creates sustainability • Once a proprietary advantage is developed, competitive behavior should be oriented to protecting, maintaining, and extending that advantage

  15. Gradual Erosion of a Sustained Competitive Advantage

  16. Competitive Dynamics: 3 Market Cycles • Fast-Cycle Markets • Markets in which the firm's capabilities that contribute to competitive advantages are not shielded from imitation and where imitation is often rapid and inexpensive • Competitive advantages are not sustainable in fast-cycle markets • Focus: learning how to rapidly and continuously develop new competitive advantages that are superior to those they replace (creating innovation) • Continually try to move on to another temporary competitive advantage before competitors can respond to the first one

  17. Developing Temporary Advantages to Create Sustained Advantage

  18. Competitive Dynamics: 3 Market Cycles • Standard-Cycle Markets • Markets where firm’s competitive advantages are moderately shielded from imitation and where imitation is moderately costly • Competitive advantages partially sustained as quality is continuously upgraded • Seek to serve many customers and gain a large market share • Gain brand loyalty through brand names • Careful operational control / manage a consistent experience for the customer