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Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter

Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter. Energy Measuring Temperature. Energy. Makes objects move Makes things stop Energy from sun plants foods we eat energy to live We need energy to “do work”. Work is done when . Go up stairs Play soccer Lift a bag of groceries

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Chapter 6 Energy and States of Matter

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1. Chapter 6Energy and States of Matter Energy Measuring Temperature LecturePLUS Timberlake

2. Energy • Makes objects move • Makes things stop • Energy from sun plants foods we eat energy to live • We need energy to “do work” LecturePLUS Timberlake

3. Work is done when • Go up stairs • Play soccer • Lift a bag of groceries • Ride a bicycle • Breathe • Heart pumps blood • Water goes over a dam LecturePLUS Timberlake

4. Potential Energy Is stored energy Examples • Water behind a dam • Compressed spring • Chemical bonds in gasoline or coal • Food LecturePLUS Timberlake

5. Kinetic Energy Is energy of motion Examples • Hammering a nail • Water flowing over a dam • Working out • Boxing • Burning gasoline LecturePLUS Timberlake

6. Some Forms of Energy • Mechanical • Electrical • Thermal (heat) • Chemical • Radiant (light) LecturePLUS Timberlake

7. Learning Check E1 A. A car uses more fuel when the air conditioner is on. True (1) or False (2) B. An apple hanging on a tree has potential energy that can turn into both mechanical or chemical energy. True (1) or False (2) LecturePLUS Timberlake

8. Solution E1 A. A car uses more fuel when the air conditioner is on. True (1) B. An apple hanging on a tree has potential energy that can turn into both mechanical or chemical energy. True(1) LecturePLUS Timberlake

9. Temperature • Particles are always moving. • When you heat water, the water molecules move faster. • When molecules move faster, the substance gets hotter. • When a substance gets hotter, its temperature goes up. LecturePLUS Timberlake

10. Learning Check E2 Suppose you place water in a freezer. A. The water particles move 1) faster 2) slower 3) the same B. The water will get 1) hotter 2) colder 3) stay the same C. The temperature of the water will be 1) higher 2) lower 3) the same LecturePLUS Timberlake

11. Solution E2 Suppose you place water in a freezer. A. The water particles move 2) slower B. The water will get 2) colder C. The temperature of the water will be 2) lower LecturePLUS Timberlake

12. Temperature • Measures the hotness or coldness of an object • Determined by using a thermometer that contains a liquid that expands with heat and contracts with cooling. LecturePLUS Timberlake

13. Temperature Scales LecturePLUS Timberlake

14. Temperature Scales Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Water boils 212°F 100°C 373 K Water freezes 32°F 0°C 273 K LecturePLUS Timberlake

15. Units of Temperature between Boiling and Freezing Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Water boils 212°F 100°C 373 K 180° 100°C 100K Water freezes 32°F 0°C 273 K LecturePLUS Timberlake

16. Learning Check E3 A. Temperature of freezing water 1) 0°F 2) 0°C 3) 0 K B. Temperature of boiling water 1) 100°F 2) 32°F 3) 373K C. Number of Celsius units between the boiling and freezing points of water 1) 100 2) 180 3) 273 LecturePLUS Timberlake

17. Solution E3 A. Temperature of freezing water 2) 0°C B. Temperature of boiling water 3) 373K C. Number of Celsius units between the boiling and freezing points of water 1) 100 LecturePLUS Timberlake

18. Fahrenheit Formula 180°F = 9°F = 1.8°F 100°C 5°C 1°C Zero point:0°C = 32°F °F = 9/5 T°C + 32 or °F = 1.8 T°C + 32 LecturePLUS Timberlake

19. Celsius Formula Rearrange to find T°C °F = 1.8 T°C + 32 °F - 32 = 1.8T°C ( +32 - 32) °F - 32 = 1.8 T°C 1.8 1.8 °F - 32 = T°C 1.8 LecturePLUS Timberlake

20. Temperature Conversions A person with hypothermia has a body temperature of 29.1°C. What is the body temperature in °F? °F = 1.8 (29.1°C) + 32 exact tenth's exact = 52.4 + 32 = 84.4°F tenth’s LecturePLUS Timberlake

21. Learning Check E4 The normal temperature of a chickadee is 105.8°F. What is that temperature in °C? 1) 73.8 °C 2) 58.8 °C 3) 41.0 °C LecturePLUS Timberlake

22. Solution E4 3) 41.0 °C Solution: °C = (°F - 32) 1.8 = (105.8 - 32) 1.8 = 73.8°F 1.8° = 41.0°C LecturePLUS Timberlake

23. Learning Check E5 Pizza is baked at 455°F. What is that in °C? 1) 437 °C 2) 235°C 3) 221°C LecturePLUS Timberlake

24. Solution E5 Pizza is baked at 455°F. What is that in °C? 2) 235°C (455 - 32) = 235°C 1.8 LecturePLUS Timberlake

25. Learning Check E6 On a cold winter day, the temperature falls to -15°C. What is that temperature in °F? 1) 19 °F 2) 59°F 3) 5°F LecturePLUS Timberlake

26. Solution E6 3) 5°F Solution: °F = 1.8(-15°C) + 32 = -27 + 32 = 5°F LecturePLUS Timberlake

27. Kelvin Scale On the Kelvin Scale 1K = 1°C 0 K is the lowest temperature 0 K = - 273°C K °C K = °C + 273 LecturePLUS Timberlake

28. Learning Check E7 What is normal body temperature of 37°C in kelvins? 1) 236 K 2) 310 K 3) 342 K LecturePLUS Timberlake

29. Solution E7 What is normal body temperature of 37°C in kelvins? 2) 310 K K = °C + 273 = 37 °C + 273 = 310. K LecturePLUS Timberlake

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