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Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette PowerPoint Presentation
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Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

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Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007 presented by Bill Garlette

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  1. Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007presented byBill Garlette william.garlette@cox.net www.nnmastergardeners.org

  2. Just Say No To Garden and Lawn Drugs

  3. Principals of Organic Horticulture JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners Training Course January 2007presented byBill Garlette william.garlette@cox.net www.nnmastergardeners.org

  4. Outline • Overview • Virginia Tech’s new interdisciplinary offering - Organic Horticulture and Landscape Systems • Soil Biology • Healthy Soil and the Ecology of Organics • Composting and Compost Use • Vermicomposting and Actively Aerated Compost Teas • Disease and Insect Pest Management • Weed Control Without Poison

  5. First, Let’s Put It Into Perspective

  6. In Perspective

  7. In Perspective

  8. In Perspective

  9. In Perspective

  10. So Just because you can’t see it doesn’t mean it isn’t profoundly important!

  11. Remember Soil is at the root of all your plant problems!

  12. And Feed the Soil and It’ll Feed the Plants!

  13. It’s Alive!!! Just like Plants and Animals; The Soil is Alive! We Have to Treat It the Same As Other Living Things

  14. What We Dread • Germs – Disease • Bugs • Weeds

  15. The Outcome If we win the war to control Nature, we WILL be on the losing side!

  16. Seven Organic Rules • Always use the best adapted varieties for each environment. • Plant in the preferred season. • Balance the mineral content of the soil. • Build and maintain the soil organic content – humus. • Do nothing to harm the beneficial soil life. • Consider troublesome insects and diseases as symptoms of one of the above rules having been violated. • Be patient. Mother Nature gives birth, but Father Time controls the cycles • - from Lessons in Nature by Malcolm Beck

  17. The True Organic Rule “Our task must be to free ourselves by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creaturesand the whole of nature in its beauty.” Dr. Albert Einstein

  18. Principals of Organic Horticulture • We focus on pollution of the: • Atmosphere - Air • Hydrosphere - Water • Biosphere – Flora & Fauna, Us • But not the Lithosphere – The Soil

  19. Principals of Organic HorticultureAgriChemistry • The foundation of agriculture chemistry was started by France's Jean Baptiste Boussingault in 1834 with the German scientist Justus von Liebig publishing his famous monograph on agriculture chemistry in 1840. • Their belief was that because humus was insoluble in water, it was insignificant to plant nutrition. Additionally, their findings indicated that plants basically needed only N-P-K.

  20. Principals of Organic Horticulture • What do we mean by Organic? • No Chemicals • No “–icides” • No Growth Manipulated Organisms (GMO)

  21. Principals of Organic HorticultureFigure Out The Fertilizer What’s This Good For? 10-10-10

  22. Principals of Organic HorticultureFigure Out The Fertilizer And This? 3-36-9

  23. The Questions • Can You Figure Out What Vitamins, Minerals, Nutrients You Should Take For A Week? • Would You Want a Weeks Worth of Meals for Sunday Dinner?

  24. Here Are The Basic Plant Needs Carbon (C) Iron (Fe) Hydrogen (H) Boron (B) Oxygen (O) Zinc (Zn) Nitrogen (N) Copper (Cu) Phosphorus (P) Manganese (Mn) Potassium (K) Molybdenum (Mo) Magnesium (Mg) Chlorine (Cl) Calcium (Ca) Cobalt (Co) Sulfur (S) = 17 Basic needs

  25. Don’t Forget,Those Are Just The Elementals.Then You Have: • Amino Acids • Humic & Fulvic Acids • Photosynthetic Sugars • Mycorrhizal Fungi • And Lots More Stuff In The Plant & Soil Food Web

  26. Principals of Organic Horticulture You May Be Familiar With This Chart • Importance of proper pH

  27. Principals of Organic Horticulture But This One Tells The Tale!! • Importance of Proper Mineral Balance – If One is Out of Balance, It Effects Others in a Detrimental Manner

  28. Principals of Organic Horticulture How did plants survive B.C. (Before Chemicals)?

  29. Principals of Organic HorticultureIt’s Alive!!! The Soil Food Web is comprised of microorganisms that provide nutrients and health to the plants as well as the soil.

  30. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms

  31. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Photosynthesizers - Plants, Algae & Bacteria = Capture energy, fix CO2. • Decomposers – Bacteria & Fungi = Break down residue, retain nutrients in their biomass.

  32. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Mutualists - Bacteria & Fungi = Enhance plant growth, fix N2, deliver nutrients.

  33. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms

  34. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Pathogens, Parasites & Root-feeders – Bacteria, Fungi, Nematodes, Microanthropods = Promote disease and consume plant roots.

  35. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Bacterial-feeders – Protozoa & Nematodes = Graze – Release plant available nitrogen (NH4+). Control root-feeding and disease causing pests.

  36. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Fungal-Feeders – Nematodes & Microanthropods=Graze – Release plant available nitrogen (NH4+). Control root-feeding and disease causing pests.

  37. Principals of Organic Horticulture

  38. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Shredders – Earthworms & Microanthropods = Break down residue and enhance soil structure.

  39. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Higher-Level Predators – Nematode feeding nematodes, larger arthropods, mice, birds, etc. = Control population of lower trophic-levels and improve the soil.

  40. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms • Bacterially dominant soils: annuals, grasses and vegetables – creates a pH above 7 (alkaline). • Fungal dominant soils: perennials, trees, shrubs – creates a pH below 7 (acid).

  41. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms Fill a Swimming Pool with Salt = Osmotic Shock

  42. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms Just Say No To Garden and Lawn Drugs = Osmotic Shock

  43. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms Soil Soil microbes Plants Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Everybody Feeds the Soil

  44. Principals of Organic HorticultureFunction of Soil Organisms If the microbes in the soil are disrupted and the nutrient cycle is out of balance then we have the recipe for Pest, Weeds and Pathogens.

  45. Principals of Organic HorticultureCaring For The Soil As A Living System • Three Aspects of Soil Health & Fertility • Physical • Chemical – Organic Chemistry: cations – anions • Biological • Requirements of a Living System • Food • Air • Water • “Shelter” – Soil structure & Conservation • Living Organism - Biota

  46. Principals of Organic HorticultureCaring For The Soil As A Living System The Organic Matter Cycle & The Soil Food Web

  47. Principals of Organic HorticultureFeeding the Soil a Balanced Diet • Compost • Cover Crops • Organic Mulches • Other Organic Residues • Lime, Other Natural Minerals and Organic Nutrients

  48. Questions?

  49. Compost Happens

  50. Don’t Do This At Home!