Principles of Landscaping, Maintenance, Xeriscaping, and Water Gardens Unit 34
Objectives • Apply the principles of landscaping, maintenance, xeriscaping, to an actual setting to understand the goals of the landscape profession. • Describe 3 major career fields within residential landscaping • List the main objectives of good residential landscaping • List the 5 principals of landscape design and examples of an application of each principle • List 3 hard paving and 3 soft paving materials • List the technical procedures for landscape maintenance • Calculate the volume of mulch needed to cover a landscape bed
Objectives (cont’) • List the basic concepts of xeriscaping • List ways the soil can be improved to conserve water • Identify plants that can be used in xeriscape setting • Explain why mulches are important • Explain what a water garden is
The Landscape Industry • See Assignment at http://jc097.k12.sd.us/Classes/Horticulture/LandscapingCareersDiscovery.doc
Objectives of Residential Landscaping • To serve the needs and desires of people in development of the outdoor environment, specifically… • To Determine the exact landscape needs and desires of the homeowner. • To determine the capabilities of the land to fulfill those needs and desires. • To develop the outdoor living area of the landscape in a manner similar to the way indoor living areas are developed. • To design the landscape in such a way that maintenance practices do not exceed that which the homeowner is willing to do. • To keep costs within the budget of the home owner.
Questions to ask a client before designing their landscape. • How many family members are there? What are their ages? • How much does the family use the outdoor areas around the home? • Does the family entertain frequently? Large or small groups? • How much privacy from the neighbors and passing cars do they desire? • How much maintenance are they willing to do in the upkeep of the landscape?
More Questions • Are there certain plants they are fond of, dislike, or are allergic to? • What service needs will the landscape be expected to accommodate? • Will the family be using the garden after dark? • How much does the family want to spend on the total development of the landscape? • Is the family willing to wait several years for the plants to reach maturity or do they want large plants installed for an immediate effect?
Site Analysis • Important step for determining the capabilities of the site • Take note of the following areas… • Dimensions of the property • Topography of the site (how flat or rolling it is) • Quality of the topsoil and subsoil • Condition of the lawn areas • Types and condition of existing plants • Location of utility lines, meters, and utility easements • Good and bad views from the site • Locations of glass areas in the house and where they open onto in the landscape • Architectural style of the neighborhood • Environmental setting of the site and the neighborhood • Existing natural features such as streams, rock outcroppings, specimen plants, and wildlife habitat areas
Also take note of… • Location of utility lines, meters, and utility easements • Good and bad views from the site • Locations of glass areas in the house and where they open onto tin the landscape • Architectural style of the neighborhood • Environmental setting of the site and the neighborhood • Existing natural features such as streams, rock outcroppings, specimen plants, and wildlife habitat areas
The Outdoor Room • Visualizing the outdoors in a similar manner as the indoors can be helpful in developing a landscape • Each area of the outdoor landscape is a “room” separated by shrubs, fences, brick or stone, exterior walls, or trellises • Floors include sand, stone, concrete, brick, decking, grass • Trees make an excellent ceiling, as do awnings, canopies, or other overhead structures
Walls • “Wall” materials are selected based on how much privacy and security is needed • Total security = 6’ tall, solid wall • Less security = lower and more open • Wall will provide the shape and limits of the outdoor room
Floor • Hard paving – concrete, flagstone, tile, decking and brick • Expensive to install • Inexpensive to maintain • Soft paving – crushed stone, wood chips, marble chips, washed gravel, pine needles • Moderate cost for both installation and maintenance • Turf Grass – most popular • Low installation, but high maintenance costs • Ground covers – cover areas no one will be walking such as slopes or under trees
The Principles Of Landscape Design • Simplicity • Balance • Focalization • Rhythm and line • Scale and Proportion
Simplicity • Important to overall unity of design • Accomplished by repeating specific plants throughout design, by massing plant types or colors rather than spacing
Balance • If properly balanced, the left side should have no more visual weight than the right • Symmetrical balance – attained when 1 side is an exact duplicate of the other • Asymmetrical balance – one side of the landscape has the same visual weight as the other, but no duplicates
Focalization of Interest • Recognizes that the viewer’s eye wants to see only 1 feature as being most important • All other elements complement that important feature • Specimen plants are used to create the focal point
Rhythm and line • Contribute to overall unity of the landscape • Develop continuity among different areas of the landscape • Repeating shapes and angles, or lines between various areas and elements of the design
Scale and Proportion • Keeps all elements of the landscape in the correct size relationship w/o towering over the buildings
Unity • Master principle of landscape design • Creates the flow among scale and proportion, balance, accent, rhythm, and simplicity • Design will complement the surroundings and create an aesthetic appeal
Landscape Maintenance • One of the fastest growing divisions of the green industry • Involves technical knowledge of the following skills • Replacement of plant material • Application of mulch to proper depth around plants • Application of soil analysis • Pruning • Weed Control • Planting and caring for flower beds • Proper mowing procedures • Maintenance of landscape accessories.
Xeriscaping • Used to practice water conservation in creative landscape • Ensures water efficiency in al future landscape practices • Basic concepts involve… • Good design and planning • Improving the soil • Turf areas • Use of ground covers • Low water use • Plant selection • Use of mulches • Use of low-volume irrigation • Proper landscape maintenance