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The Behavioural Model

The Behavioural Model

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The Behavioural Model

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  1. The Behavioural Model www.psychlotron.org.uk • Main assumptions: • Abnormal behaviour is the consequence of abnormal learning from the environment • There is no qualitative difference between normal and abnormal behaviour – they are learned in the same ways: • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Social learning

  2. Classical Conditioning www.psychlotron.org.uk • Learning by association: • When two environmental changes (stimuli) occur together, we learn to associate them • The response to one may transfer to the other • E.g. Pavlov (1901) taught dogs to salivate when they heard a bell

  3. Classical Conditioning www.psychlotron.org.uk

  4. Operant Conditioning www.psychlotron.org.uk • Learning by consequences • Organisms operate on their environments • The likelihood of them repeating any given behaviour depends on its consequences • Reinforcement – more likely to repeat • Punishment – less likely to repeat

  5. Social Learning www.psychlotron.org.uk • Learning by observation • People observe the behaviour of other people (models) • They may imitate the behaviour they observe • Whether or not they do so depends on the observed consequences: • Vicarious reinforcement • Vicarious punishment