Islam Third of the Abrahamic Faiths
Why Study Islam ? • > 1.2 billion followers worldwide • > major impacts on world history • > key factor in regional, world politics
Islam is ...Islam is a monotheistic religion begun by Muhammad around 600 CE in Arabia. The word means “surrender”...to the will of god. Islam united Arab tribes, and was the basis for an empire from Spain to India.
Muhammad was an Arab merchant who interacted with Jews, Christians and others as he traveled in S.W. Asia. He founded a new religion (Islam), based on revelations and his teachings, converting poly-theistic tribes to belief in one god, Allah. He died in 632CE.
Abu Bakr lived until 630 CE was key advisor to Muhammad became the 1st caliph consolidated control of Arabian tribes began Islam’s expansion outside Arabia Abu Bakr
Umarwas 2nd caliph, ca. 640 CEled expansion to Egypt, Mesopotamia,and Persia
Ali Ali was Muhammad’s cousin, son-in-law (married to Fatima), and closest male heir. He was the 4th caliph and 1st Shi’a imam, until he was killed in 661
Hasan and HusseinAli’s sons, the 2nd and3rd imams.killed by Umayyadforces in Iraq.
THE FIVE PILLARS-- Creed -- -- Prayer -- -- Charity -- -- Fasting -- -- Pilgrimage --
~ The Problem ~Muhammad died without a son. Who will be the new leader of the faith?
~ The Sunni Solution ~A council of Muhammad’s confidant’s elects a senior advisor (Abu Bakr) as the first caliph.
~ The Shi’a Solution ~Find the nearest male relative (Ali), and continue Muhammad’s bloodline through imams.
Sunnis and Shi’ites Clash. ... today, 80% of Muslims are Sunni. ... Iran and Iraq are the only Shi’a-run countries.
Shi’a IslamShi’atAli ... “Party of Ali”12 Imams ... most are martyred. ...the 12th [Mahdi] will reappear on the Day of JudgementShi’itepilgrimage sites include Karbala and Najaf in Iraq.
Koran [Quran] -- “The Recitation”... a record of Muhammad’s revelations from god through Gabriel. Begun around 610 CE; written around 650 CE. Similar accounts as the Old Testament.
Shari’aShari’a is the Islamic legal code, based mainly on the Koran and Hadith, and as compiled by Muslim scholars (ulama).
The Ka’aba • located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia • sacred cube at center of the universe • ancient Arab tribal pilgrimage site • dedicated to Allah by Muhammad
Medina • “City of the Prophet” • Formerly Yathrib • Muhammad found sanctuary here after the Hejira (622 CE) • Islam’s 2nd holiest site
Dome of the Rock3rd holiest site in Islamic worldlocated in Jerusalemrock where Abraham took Ismail Muhammad ascended toheaven here
Islamic Art Islamic religious artists avoid “graven images” of people -especially the Prophet- and other persons. Arabic writing was developed into the art form of calligraphy. The most popular text is Koranic scripture. Arabesques are repeated geometric or floral designs. Similar to tessellations.