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Islam PowerPoint Presentation

Islam

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Islam

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  1. Islam

  2. Islam Third of the Abrahamic Faiths

  3. Why Study Islam ? • > 1.2 billion followers worldwide • > major impacts on world history • > key factor in regional, world politics

  4. Islam is ...Islam is a monotheistic religion begun by Muhammad around 600 CE in Arabia. The word means “surrender”...to the will of god. Islam united Arab tribes, and was the basis for an empire from Spain to India.

  5. MUHAMMAD

  6. Muhammad was an Arab merchant who interacted with Jews, Christians and others as he traveled in S.W. Asia. He founded a new religion (Islam), based on revelations and his teachings, converting poly-theistic tribes to belief in one god, Allah. He died in 632CE.

  7. Muhammad’s home region: the Arabian Peninsula

  8. Abu Bakr lived until 630 CE was key advisor to Muhammad became the 1st caliph consolidated control of Arabian tribes began Islam’s expansion outside Arabia Abu Bakr

  9. Umarwas 2nd caliph, ca. 640 CEled expansion to Egypt, Mesopotamia,and Persia

  10. Uthmanwas 3rd caliph, ca. 650 CEQuaranwas writtenunder his direction

  11. Ali Ali was Muhammad’s cousin, son-in-law (married to Fatima), and closest male heir. He was the 4th caliph and 1st Shi’a imam, until he was killed in 661

  12. Hasan and HusseinAli’s sons, the 2nd and3rd imams.killed by Umayyadforces in Iraq.

  13. Islamic Beliefs and Practices

  14. THE FIVE PILLARS-- Creed -- -- Prayer -- -- Charity -- -- Fasting -- -- Pilgrimage --

  15. Creed - There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.

  16. Prayer - Five times daily, facing Mecca.

  17. Charity - Annual giving to the poor.

  18. Fasting - Dawn-to-dusk during Ramadan.

  19. PilgrimageTo Mecca, once in a lifetime.

  20. The Sunni - Shi’a Split in Islam

  21. ~ The Problem ~Muhammad died without a son. Who will be the new leader of the faith?

  22. ~ The Sunni Solution ~A council of Muhammad’s confidant’s elects a senior advisor (Abu Bakr) as the first caliph.

  23. ~ The Shi’a Solution ~Find the nearest male relative (Ali), and continue Muhammad’s bloodline through imams.

  24. Sunnis and Shi’ites Clash. ... today, 80% of Muslims are Sunni. ... Iran and Iraq are the only Shi’a-run countries.

  25. Shi’a IslamShi’atAli ... “Party of Ali”12 Imams ... most are martyred. ...the 12th [Mahdi] will reappear on the Day of JudgementShi’itepilgrimage sites include Karbala and Najaf in Iraq.

  26. Islamic Holy Books

  27. Koran [Quran] -- “The Recitation”... a record of Muhammad’s revelations from god through Gabriel. Begun around 610 CE; written around 650 CE. Similar accounts as the Old Testament.

  28. The Koran

  29. Hadith Sayings of Muhammad.Basis of Sharia, along with the Koran.

  30. Shari’aShari’a is the Islamic legal code, based mainly on the Koran and Hadith, and as compiled by Muslim scholars (ulama).

  31. Schools of Islamic Law

  32. Islamic Holy Sites

  33. Islam’s Three Holiest Cities ... Mecca... Medina... Jerusalem

  34. The Ka’aba • located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia • sacred cube at center of the universe • ancient Arab tribal pilgrimage site • dedicated to Allah by Muhammad

  35. Medina • “City of the Prophet” • Formerly Yathrib • Muhammad found sanctuary here after the Hejira (622 CE) • Islam’s 2nd holiest site

  36. The Dome of the Rock

  37. Dome of the Rock3rd holiest site in Islamic worldlocated in Jerusalemrock where Abraham took Ismail Muhammad ascended toheaven here

  38. Inside the Dome of the Rock

  39. Islamic Art and Literature

  40. Islamic Art Islamic religious artists avoid “graven images” of people -especially the Prophet- and other persons. Arabic writing was developed into the art form of calligraphy. The most popular text is Koranic scripture. Arabesques are repeated geometric or floral designs. Similar to tessellations.

  41. Koranic Script