The Middle East during the Early Modern Era1450-1750 Suleymaniye mosque built for Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Sinan Pashain 1556.
4000 BCE – 500 BCE • Mesopotamia • Veiling of women • Moses established monotheism. • Hammurabi’s Law Code
500 BCE – 600 CE • Persian Empire • Alexander of Macedon sacked the capital built by Darius at Persepolis. • Zoroastrianism and its text The Gathas promoted the concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, and reward and punishment.
600 CE – 1450 CE • Muhammad introduces Islam. • Umayyad Empire institutes a tax, the “jizya,” on Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. • Conquering empire
600 CE – 1450 CE • Abbasid Empire • Relied on Persian techniques of administration. • Baghdad became a center of bankers, commerce, and craft • Indian, Persian, and Greek influences encouraged explosion in literature, philosophy and mathematics.
600 CE – 1450 CE • Mongols • Kublai Khan’s brother toppled Abbasid Empire and established Mongol ilkhanate in Persia.
1450 CE – 1750 CE • Ottomans • Autocratic • Women were revered in politics and helped manage empire. • Bureaucracy drew inspiration from stepped traditions of Turkish and Mongol people • Sacked capitol of Constantinople and absorbed Byzantine Empire.
Identify the five most significant cultural changes that took place in the Middle East during the Early Modern Era (1450-1750).
Political Change • When Mehmud II captured Constantinople in 1453, he established new capitol and called it Istanbul. • He established tightly centralized, absolute monarchy. • He wasn’t just a warrior; he was also a true emperor. • Under Suleyman, the Ottomans became a naval power. • Shan Ismail and the Savavids established a presence in modern day Iran and Iraq.
Political Change • Conflicts developed between the Ottomans and the Safavids who embraced Twelver Shiism. • Flashback: • After the death of Muhammad Muslims split: • Shias believed leadership should be assigned to descendants of Ali. • Sunnis believed in the legitimacy of the early caliphs.
Social Change • The ruler’s mother and his chief wife or favorite concubine enjoyed special privileges and authority. • Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emperors followed the example of Chinggis Khan in relying on these women in political roles. • Population growth was not as dramatic as in other parts of the world.
Religious Change • Twelver Shiism was introduced by Shah Ismail and the Safavid Empire. • They believed one of the twelve religious leaders after Muhammad beginning with Ali would return to take power and spread true religion. • Safavids believed that Ismail was incarnation of Allah. • Established Shiites in Iran and Iraq which still exists today.
Intellectual Change • There was a decline in intellectual pursuits due to the focus on expansion. • Islamic empires neglected cultural developments in the larger world. • Few Muslims traveled willingly to the land of the Franks. • Muslim rulers and their subjects felt superior and believed they had nothing to learn from Europeans. • Conservative religious Islamic leaders actively discouraged the circulation of writing that might pose challenges to the social and cultural order.
Technological Change • Capital cities and royal palaces reflected imperial majesty. • Monuments of Istanbul reflected Byzantine and Islamic elements. • Suleymaniye’s religious complex combined tall, slender minarets and large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sophia. • They used European warfare technologies on a widespread scale.
Economic Changes in Middle East • American food products were introduced to Middle East: • Maize, potatoes, and tomatoes • American producers and European merchants supplied Muslim markets with coffee, sugar, and tobacco. • By the 18th century, foreign trade had declined dramatically. • Much of Middle Eastern trade had fallen under the control of European powers.
What were the continuities in the Middle East during the Early Modern Era (1450-1750)?
Political Continuities • They remained Islamic and military empires. • Continued use of the devshirme and Janissaries established by early Ottoman empire. • Islamic empires continued the use of the dhimmi in return for the jizya. • Continued fighting among different groups within the empire. • Religious tensions • Economic difficulties
Social Continuities The practice of veiling of women continued. The lives of most women in society continued to be suppressed.
Religious Continuities Islam remained the predominant religion of the region. Ottomans continued practice of religious toleration as long as the jizya was paid.
Intellectual Continuities This period of time did not reflect the flowering of ideas, i.e. philosophy, literature, sciences, mathematics, etc., that existed in the previous period.
Technological Continuities A common theme throughout this period was the use of European warfare technologies.
Economic Continuities The Middle East continued to play a role in regional trade, though their place in the global trade network decreased.