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Chapter 8 Competition and Coexistence

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  1. Chapter 8Competitionand Coexistence

  2. 群體生態學Synecology: community ecology 以生物組織水準來分 • 個體生態學Autecology: Life history, adaptation • 種群生態學Population ecology • 群體生態學Synecology: community ecology • 生態系統生態學Ecosystem ecology

  3. Outline • Forms of competition: Interspecific and intraspecific • Intraspecific competition • Common in nature • Described by the 3/2 thinning law

  4. Outline • Interspecific competition • Common in nature • Outcome affected by • Physical environment • Other species

  5. Outline • Competition • Exists among 55-75% of the species • Mechanism: over use of the same resource

  6. Outline • Mathematical models, called Lotka-Volterra models, predict four outcomes of competition • One species eliminated • The other species is eliminated • Both species coexist • Either species is eliminated, depending on starting conditions

  7. Outline • Competing species can coexist through partitioning of resources

  8. Community:群體,群聚,群落 • 群落是居住的相當靠近且有交互作用可能物種集合 • 生物在自然界依循一定的規律而集合成群落 • 特定空間或特定生境下若干生物種群有規律的組合 • 彼此間或與環境間互相作用與影響,具有一定形態結構與營養結構,執行一定功能

  9. Community群落 A group of populations of plants and animals in a given place; used in a broad sense to refer to ecological units of various sizes and degrees of integration.

  10. 福壽螺為什麼要把卵產在枝幹上?

  11. Three types of Community:群體,群聚,群落 • Abstract community抽象群聚:心裡想像的特殊形式群聚,事實上並不存在,如沙漠,草原群聚 • Associational community聯合群聚:過渡形式的生物群聚,如森林,草原,池塘 • Concrete community具體群聚:可直接觀察的特殊區域 (1) Global community全球性群聚:陸地terrestrial,海洋oceanic (2) Regional community區域性群聚=Biotic province生物領域(根據溫度、雨量等不同、將全世界分成:冷溫熱三區(下含16個生物相Biome)

  12. 群落(體)生態學Synecology: community ecology Competition Predation Community structure Species diversity succession

  13. 群落的基本特徵 • 具有一定種類組成 • 不同物種間相互影響 • 形成群落環境 • 具有一定結構 • 一定的動態形式 • 一定的分布範圍 • 群落的邊界特徵

  14. 馬拉威湖慈鯛科的適應性演化 Chapt. 08

  15. Interactions among species:種間的關係 (一)競爭competition (二)互惠mutualism (三)共棲commensalism (四)共生和附生protocooperation (五)寄生parasitism (六)捕食predation

  16. The evolution of interactions among species(I) • Mimicry擬態:從模仿其他物種的外表上獲得好處的現象。 • Bastesian mimicry貝氏擬態:無毒害的物種藉由模擬有害物種而獲利的情形。 • Mullerian mimicry木氏擬態: 兩種不同物種之間的擬態。 • Aggressive mimicry攻擊性擬態: 有毒的種類模擬無毒的種類,以提升其偽裝效果,增加掠食成功率。

  17. The evolution of interactions among species(II) • Coevolution共同演化:例如植物和昆蟲間的共同演化。 • Parasitism寄生: • Mutualism互利共生: • Competition競爭: • Predator-prey掠食者與獵物: • Herbivore-plant草食性動物與植物:

  18. 血桐的蜜線

  19. Why are community interactions important? • 群體是居住的相當靠近且有交互作用可能物種集合 • 烏頭翁和白頭翁混居的結果會如何? • 草原上只有羚羊而沒有獅子,結果會如何? • 如果沒有蝴蝶或蜜蜂,開花植物的世界將會如何?

  20. 動物可以消滅植物嗎?

  21. 這麼多的小螃蟹都可以長大嗎?

  22. 這些小鰻苗為什麼要力爭上游?

  23. 群聚的利己主義與交互作用假設的檢驗

  24. 日本禿頭鯊和蝦苗

  25. 小蘭嶼火山口

  26. 在寄主與寄生系統中快速的族群改變

  27. 一群共域棲息蜥蜴的資源分配現象

  28. Niche:生態龕、生態位、生態區位 . The sum total of a population’s use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its environment; the role a population plays in its environment.一個生物在它所生存的環境中,對於生物性與非生物性資源利用的總和。 . The niche is a property of the species or population; it is defined functionally or in terms of the species’ tolerance limits

  29. 影響生物的因子 • 非生態因子Non-ecological factors: • 對有機體生活無明顯影響的環境因子。 • 生態因子Ecological Factors • 生物性因子Biotic factors (一)共生 (二)天敵 (三)競爭 (四)抑制 (五)傳播 • 非生物性因子 Abiotic factors

  30. 山櫻花為什麼先開花後長葉子?

  31. 自然競爭的實驗性證據

  32. 實驗室中草履蟲族群的競爭

  33. 實驗室中掠食者和獵物之間的動態關係

  34. 邏輯模型所預測的族群成長情形

  35. 指數成長和對數成長的比較

  36. Lotka-Volterra model: • 獵物按指數增長,捕食者沒有獵物時按指數減少的世代連續模型。 • dN1/dt = r1N1[(K1-N1)/K1] • dN2/dt = r2N2[(K2-N2)/K2] R = population growth rate N = population size K =carrying capacity

  37. Lotka-Volterra model:獨立時 • (1)獵物prey dN/dt = r1N N = prey density t = time R1 = population growth rate • (2)捕食者predator dP/dt = -r2P N = predator density t = time R1 = population mortality rate

  38. Intraspecific competition between members of the same species. Interspecific competition between different species. Aphid sucking leaf sap Caterpillar chewing leaf Species Interactions • Types of competition

  39. Species Interactions • Summary of biotic interactions (Table 8.1)

  40. Species Interactions • Summary of biotic interactions (cont.) • Herbivory, predation, parasitism • Positive for one population • Negative for the other population • Batesian mimicry • Mimicry of a non-palatable species by a palatable one

  41. Species Interactions • Batesian mimicry (cont.). • Positive for one population • Negative for the other population • Amensalism • One-sided competition • One species had a negative effect on another, but the reverse is not true.

  42. Species Interactions • Neutralism • Coexistence of noninteracting species • Probably rare • Mutualism and commensalisms • Less common • Symbiotic relationships

  43. Species Interactions • Mutualism and commensalisms (cont). • Species are intimately associated with one another • Both species may NOT benefit from relationship • Not harmful, as is the case with parasitism • Competition • Negative effect for both species

  44. Species Interactions • Types of competition (cont.). • Interspecific • Intraspecific • Characterizing competition • Resource competition • Organisms compete for a limiting resource

  45. Species Interactions • Characterizing competition (cont.). • Interference competition • Individuals harm one another directly by physical force

  46. Intraspecific Competition • Quantifying competition in plants vs. animals • For plants, expressed as change in biomass • For animals, expressed as change in numbers • Plants can not escape competition

  47. Intraspecific Competition • Quantifying competition in plants vs. animals (cont.). • Animals can move away from competition • Yoda (1963) • Quantify competition between plants • Yoda's Law or self-thinning rule; 3/2 power rule

  48. Intraspecific Competition • Yoda (1963) (cont.). • Describes the increase in biomass of individual plants as the number of plant competitors decrease. • Log w = -3/2 (log N) + log c • w = mean plant weight • N = plant density • C = constant

  49. Intraspecific Competition • Yoda (1963) (cont.). • w = cN3/2

  50. Interspecific Competition: Laboratory Experiments • Field experiments • Organisms can interact with all other organisms • Natural variations in the abiotic environment is factored in