Past, Present and Future All languages have ways to talking about present, past, or future periods of time. Distinguishing periods of time is called tense.
In ASL, tense is formed by the addition of certain signs called tense markers to the beginning of a sentence that is then understood to be in the past or future tense.
If there are no tense markers, then the sentence is in the present tense.
The ASL Timeline diagram illustrates how tense is formed in ASL. This timeline divides your signing space into three regions: The present, past, and future areas.
Tense marker for the past: their movement towards or over the shoulder Example: YESTERDAY I GO STORE.
Future tense complete their movement ahead of the body. Example: TOMORROW I GO SCHOOL.
Present Tense I am learning ASL. I go to school at 9. I live in California. I like to eat pizza. She likes her car. He needs a new book. Today I’m going to the mall. I need to go to work. Past Tense I learned ASL. I went to school at 9. I used to live in California. She got a new car. He bought a new book. I went to the mall I already went to work. Let’s Practice
The Rule of 9 The Rule of 9 is a pattern that influences a concept’s duration, or how long something lasts. It is used when signing about a specific period of time or age. This period is included with the base sign, so that the difference between week and nine weeks is the incorporation of the number nine into the dominant hand. Only numbers up to 9 may be incorporated into a sign.
I Want to Know…. Why can’t larger numbers follow the Rule of 9? ASL numbers 1-9 are easy to see and don’t require additional movement, unlike numbers such as 11, 25, or 100. Combining signs that involve movement into numbers signs would be awkward and cumbersome! But note that the Rule of 9 and the minute sign have change over time, so perhaps others will as well.
Look at the Examples Below Use the Rule of 9 with: • Age • Specific time of day • Specific of hours • Specific of minutes • Specific days • Specific of week • Specific numbers of month • Specific amounts of money
The Rule of 9 Age • OLD4 • OLD7 • OLD8 • OLD19 • OLD26 • OLD67 • OLD12 • OLD70
Hours 4 hours 7 hours 15 hours 48 hours 72 hours 6 hour 86 hours 12 hours Minutes 3 minutes 7 minutes 9 minutes 16 minutes 30 minutes 25 minutes 2 minutes 55 minutes The Rule of 9
Days 3 days 8 days 14 days 18 days 28 days 36 days 76 days 99 days Weeks 2 weeks 6 weeks 23 weeks 52 weeks 12 weeks 7 weeks 25 weeks 17 weeks The Rule of 9
Months 1 month 2 months 5 months 12 months 23 months 44 months 88 months 100 months Years 3 years 6 years 2 years from now In 4 years 15 years 25 years 3 years ago 4 year ago The Rule of 9
Time • 1:00 • 3:00 • 5:00 • 7:00 • 9:00 • 10:00 • 11:00
Practice Sentences Write the following sentences into ASL Gloss. 7 Sentences
Sentences ______________________________________________________________________ • Last week I drive Dallas ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 3-months ago I got new car. _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Time-11:30 I need go work. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5-year ago I graduate from high school _________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 4-Days future I see my friend. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 5 minutes future school starts. ______________________________________________________________ 7. Today I work 6-hours
You will sign this to the teacher Write a sentence for each in ASL Gloss using the following: • Age • Days (1 day) • Hours • Minutes • Time of Day (1:00) • Weeks • Months