Food Safety 101 Foodborne Illness: Awareness and Prevention Level One Certification Course Area 2 Kentucky Department of Education Division of School and Community Nutrition
Objectives At the end of this presentation, you will be able to: • Recognize harmful bacteria and viruses; • Understand the Danger Zone; • Utilize proper techniques to avoid cross contamination; • Utilize proper cooking temperatures for cooling, thawing, reheating and holding times and date marking.
Foodborne Illness Who is the most vulnerable to foodborne illness? • Young children (infants and school-aged) • Older adults (elderly) • Individuals with compromised immune systems (pregnant, sick, etc.)
Foodborne Illness Causes of Foodborne Illness:Let’s look at bacteria • The types of bacteria are: • Beneficial bacteria • Beneficial bacteria lives in our environment and in our bodies, helping us with digestion, vitamin production and helping to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. • Spoilage Bacteria • There are bacteria that live and grow in food that can cause damage to the flavor, appearance, texture or composition of food. • Pathogens • These are the bacteria that produce disease in the human body. These bacteria are our main concern, as they are responsible for foodborne illness.
Foodborne Illness Examples of Harmful Bacteria
Foodborne Illness Causes of Foodborne Illness:Let’s look at Viruses • A virus is much smaller than a bacteria and must live inside a living cell in order to survive and reproduce. It takes very few cells infected with a virus to make a person sick. • Personal hygiene, especially washing your hands frequently, are important in preventing foodborne illness caused by viruses.
Foodborne Illness There are two viruses that are of major concern in food service: Norovirus: - Causes nausea, stomach aches, vomiting and diarrhea. - Causes more foodborne illness than all other causes of foodborne illnesses combined. - To prevent the spread of norovirus, you should: - not come to work while sick, - wash your hands frequently (especially after using the bathroom) - avoid eating raw shellfish. Hepatitis A - Causes a serious infection of the liver. - Hand-washing is the most significant way you can prevent the spread of this foodborne illness.
Potentially Hazardous Foods Now let’s look at:Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF), What are they? Bacteria grows rapidly in environments that are: • Moist; • Have low acidity levels; or • In/on meat, dairy, eggs, cooked vegetables, rice and pasta.
Potentially Hazardous Foods Food Storage: Preventing Foods from Becoming Unsafe Storage: • Separate raw meats, poultry, seafood and eggs from other foods. • These foods should be stored on lower shelves, while cooked and ready-to-eat foods should be stored on higher shelves. • This is so there is no opportunity for juices from raw foods to drip and contaminate prepared foods. • Recommended Temperatures: • Produce: 45° F or below • Dairy and Meat: 40° F or below • Seafood: 30° F or below
Potentially Hazardous Foods Remember • Any time you touch raw animal products, Wash Your Hands!
Potentially Hazardous Foods Don’t forget produce! - Remember that bacteria and viruses can be or grow on the outside of fresh produce. - Since we eat a lot of our produce raw, it is important to wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly to prevent contamination that can lead to illness. - Even though we do not eat the skin on some fruits, when we slice into hard skin, the knife can carry contaminants from the outer skin into the flesh of the fruit or vegetable that we will be eating.
Potentially Hazardous Foods More produce safety For soft-skinned fruits and vegetables: • Rinse under running water or with a fresh produce rinse product. For firm-skinned fruits and vegetables: • Rub under running tap water or with a fresh produce rinse product with your hands, or scrub with a clean vegetable brush.
Cross-Contamination What is Cross-Contamination? • Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food via means of utensils, equipment or human hands to another food. It also can occur when a raw food touches or drips onto a cooked or ready-to-eat food.
Cross-Contamination Preventing Cross-Contamination • Wash, rinse and sanitize cutting boards, knives, utensils and countertops after contact with raw meat. • Store raw meat below and away from all ready-to-eat foods. • Wash, rinse and sanitize food- contact equipment (slicers, knives, cutting boards) at least every 4 hours. • Wash hands before handling food and after touching raw meat.
Cross-Contamination Foreign material can make food unsafe. • Foreign materials are any objects in food that are not foods themselves. Foreign material contamination can cause the person who eats the contaminated food to become sick, poisoned, choke or cause damage to their digestive track.
Cross-Contamination Examples of Some Harmful Foreign Materials
Cross-Contamination Preventing Foreign Material Contamination • Vigilance is the only way to prevent foreign material contamination. • Store chemicals away from foods. • Frequently inspect utensils and equipment for damage. • Discard foods that you believe to be contaminated.
Danger Zone The Danger Zone: Time and Temperature Abuse • Time and temperature abuse is one of the most common ways food becomes infested with bacteria. • The longer a food spends (time) in the Danger Zone (temperature) the higher the risk of foodborne illness.
Danger Zone What is the Danger Zone?
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I store raw foods? • Produce: 45° F or below • Dairy and Meat: 40° F or below • Seafood: 30° F or below
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I thaw frozen foods? Frozen foods should be thawed in one of the following ways: • In the refrigerator, on a tray. • Under cool running water. • During the cooking process. • In a microwave oven (if food is to be cooked immediately after thawing).
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I know if a food is done? • We use high temperatures to kill bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms found on and in raw meat, poultry, eggs and seafood. • It is important to measure the temperatures of the following foods with a calibrated food thermometer.
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I hold for service? • Cold foods should be held below 40° F. Examples of cold service foods include salad and yogurt bars.* • Hot foods should be held above 140° F. Examples of hot foods include cooked rice, vegetables and meats.* • Temperatures for both hot and cold foods should be checked at scheduled intervals and recorded. If the food being held is in the Danger Zone, it should be discarded. *Be sure to check your district policy for holding temperatures.
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I cool food for storage? • Cooked foods should be rapidly chilled so they spend as little time as possible in the Danger Zone. • The Kentucky Food Code requires that potentially hazardous foods are chilled to at least 45° F within 4 hours. • Ideally, hot foods should be cooled from 135° F to 70° F within 2 hours and cooled from 70° F to 40° F or less within 4 hours. • Room temperature foods should also be cooled to 40° F or less within 4 hours.
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I cool foods? Acceptable Cooling Methods • Separate into smaller portions. • Place food in shallow pans. • Use containers that facilitate heat transfer. • Stir food in container that has been placed in an ice-water bath. • Arrange a refrigerator for maximum heat transfer. • Use rapid cooling equipment. • Add ice as an ingredient.
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:How do I reheat foods? • Foods should be reheated quickly to 165° F before serving. Reheating to 165° F will kill bacteria which may have multiplied while food was being cooled. • Food that is reheated in the microwave should be allowed to stand for 2 minutes after heating to 165° F to ensure that food is heated throughout.
Danger Zone Avoiding the Danger Zone:Always keep a record! • In order to ensure foods do not stay in the Danger Zone for too long, it is important to keep records. • Mark containers with a maximum 4 hour time period in the Danger Zone at the time they are removed from a controlled temperature environment so the food can be discarded if it spends too much time in the Danger Zone.
Date Marking Let’s look at Date Marking • Date marking ensures that food is either used or discarded before it spoils. • It is an important step in reducing risk of foodborne illnesses.
Date Marking Date Marking cont. • Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, and potentially hazardous foods shall be marked with a “Consume By Date”: • At time of preparation, if prepared on the premises and held for over 24 hours. OR • At the time the container is opened, if obtained from a commercial vendor.
Date Marking If subsequently frozen: • When the food is thawed, mark that it shall be consumed within 24 hours. • Mark at the time of freezing how many days it has already been held at refrigeration. Upon thawing, subtract these days from the new “consume by date”.
Date Marking Discard food if: • The “consume by date” has expired. • The food is not consumed within 24 hours of thawing. • The food is not date marked or marked appropriately.
Objectives Lessons learned… • Now we can recognize harmful bacteria and viruses; • Understand the Danger Zone; • Utilize proper techniques to avoid cross contamination; and • Utilize proper cooking temperatures for cooling, thawing, reheating and holding times and date marking.