Risk factors for unplanned transfer to Intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department Dr Suganthi Singaravelu SpR5 Anaesthetics Journal Club presentation -Arrowe park Hospital
Introduction • 5% of ED admissions undergo unplanned transfer to ICU1 • Unplanned admission has a higher mortality than direct admission from ED to ICU • Better recognition and interventions in ED are needed.
Aim of the study • To describe the risk factors associated with unplanned transfer to ICU within 24hours of admission to the ward from ED
Methods- Patients identification • All adult patients admitted in ED between 2007 and 2009 • Data obtained from Kaiser Permanente North California -13 hospitals with similar patient populations. • Exclusion: Direct transfer to theatre or ICU, pregnant patients
Methods- Patient characteristics • Patient: Age, gender, admitting diagnosis, chronic illness burden, acute physiological derangement in the ED and hospital length of stay • Chronic illness: Comorbidity Point Score (COPS) • Acute: Laboratory Acute Physiological Score (LAPS)
Statistics • Univariate analysis: ANOVA and chi square test • Multivariate logistic regression
Results • Total: 178,315 non ICU admission from ED • 4,252 (2.4%) – admitted to ICU within 24 hours of leaving ED
Significant Risk factors • Higher co-morbidity • More deranged physiology • Arrived overnight in the ward • More frequent in lower volume hospitals
Results • Respiratory conditions (COPD/ pneumonia/acute RTI) comprised nearly half (47%) of all conditions. • 1 in 30 pneumonia and 1 in 33 COPD were transferred to ICU from ward • Overall 1 in 42 with respiratory condition – worse mortality
Respiratory problems • Tendency for rapid deterioration • ICU may accept in early stage • Applying prediction rules to identify the patients who may need ventilation • Intermediate (HDU) care for these patients
Discussion- Hospital size • Unplanned transfers X 2 higher in low volume centers- Reasons??? - Less resources - lower ICU capacity - less on –call intensivists - less experience with certain critical care conditions
Dark hours 11pm to 7 am? • Unclear why arriving overnight has higher risk • Possibilities are ED overcrowding in the evening Decreased staffing longer delays in critical diagnostic tests and interventions
Lesser risk of ICU admission • TCU (HDU) • Age >85 – advanced directives or patient preferences
Limitation of the study • Not designed to distinguish the underlying cause i.e. under recognition of illness or delays in interventions • vital signs and mental status that were not included could improve the risk adjustment.
Study conclusions • Unplanned admission to ICU is more likely in patients with respiratory conditions, sepsis and MI, higher co morbidity burden and grossly abnormal lab results. • Better inpatient triage, earlier interventions or closer monitoring may prevent unplanned ICU admissions.
How to apply in our hospital • Prediction rules can be considered for better triage • Organisational changes for night shift, more HDU beds or A&E resources • Compare data with high volume centers and regular monitoring