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ATA 641-PART 2 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak PowerPoint Presentation
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ATA 641-PART 2 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak

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ATA 641-PART 2 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak

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  1. ATA 641-PART 2 BOĞAZİÇİ UNIVERSITY 2007 Prof. Dr. Zafer Toprak First part available at: under faculty / Zafer Toprak

  2. Establishment of the Turkish Republic 29 October 1923 Consolidation of power 1923-1927 Ankara – Capital of the Republic 1923 Growing tension between Ankara & Istanbul

  3. Kemalists in minority Opponents (Islamists & liberals) To restore the Sultanate Assembly dissolved 1 April 1923 Tightly controlled new elections June 1923 The new chamber 11 August 1923 A new party – Vangard of change The inaugural congress of RPP 9 August 1923 Ankara – new capital

  4. Adoption of a new Constitution20 April 1924 Anayasa = Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu Incorporating the principles of the Constitutional Act of 1921 Teşkilat-ı Esasiye Kanunu Concentration of all three government powers in the one-house National Assembly Millet Meclisi Executive – Legislative – Judiciary (Tevhid-i kuvva)

  5. (TBMM- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) to be elected by indirect vote The indirect two-tier system of election (İki dereceli seçim) 1923-up to 1946 1923 - 27 - 31 - 35 - 39 - 43

  6. Abolition of the Caliphate 1924 Members of the Ottoman Dynasty left Turkey * * * 17 November 1924 Progressive Republican Party ( Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası ) Republic – Premature decision

  7. Radicals: Inönü versus Moderates: Hüseyin Rauf Minority within RPP - 32 deputies Corruption – possesions of Greek migrants

  8. People’s Party – Republican People’s Party(Halk Fırkası – Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası)Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi 1935 Radical & authoritarian - Centralist Unity of powers (Tevhid-i kuvva) National economic policy Revolutionary changes The indirect two-tier system of election

  9. Progressive Republican Party ( Terakkiperver Cumhuriyet Fırkası ) Liberal –Decentralization Separation of powers Liberal economic policy = Foreign loans + capital Evolutionary changes Direct elections by universal suffrage Minimum state intervention

  10. The Issue of Regime - Conservatives Caliphate – Spritual leader and president of the assemby An Islamic constitutional regime Caliph to ratify all legislation Legislation in line with the Şeriat the legal code of Islam

  11. Revolutionaries The notion of an Islamic state – anathema / curse Islamic state – to maintain the status quo Modern national state – Secular & rational Science & Modern Education

  12. ORIENTATION TOWARDS SECULARISM - LAİKLİK Three Revolutionary Laws -  3 March 1924 (Üç Devrim Yasası) 1 - Abolition of the Caliphate (Hilafet) 2 - Replacement of Ministry of Religious Law and Pious Foundation by The Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri) 3 - Unification of the educational institutions (Tevhid-i Tedrisat)

  13. 11 February 1924 Kurdish revolt headed by Şeyh Sait Elazığ Purpose: Establishment of an independent Kurdish state Restoration the Caliphate

  14. 4 March 1925 Promulgation of the Maintenance of Order Law ( Takrir-i Sükun Kanunu ) 2 years To ban any organization or publication considered as the cause of disturbance to law and order

  15. Opposed by PRP – too elastic Two independence tribunals Eastern provinces – Rest of the country Deportation Compulsory settlement in the West Kurdish identity officially denied Constitutional identity replaced ethnic identities

  16. Extensive powers to deal with a) rebels, b ) reactionaries c) subversive elements. Martial law( Sıkı yönetim ) To suppress the Kurdish uprisings 8 newspapers and periodicals closed down Leading journalists, columnists from Istanbul arrested

  17. The PRP closed down 3 June 1925 Accused of A - Giving support to the rebellion B - Exploiting religion for political purposes

  18. Consolidation of power History repeats itself 1908-1912 pluralistic – relatively free 1913-1918 – power monopoly Radical program of secularization and modernization Removal of Şeyhülislam from cabinet etc. * * * 1920-1925 / 27 pluralistic 1925 – 1945 authoritarian regime A program of reforms

  19. Alternatives: A - Democratic system with a slower pace B - Autoritarian system with radical reforms The dilamma Democracy versus Republic Strengthening and survival of the State

  20. Independence Tribunals - Revolutionary courts ( İstiklal Mahkemeleri ) established in 1920 reactivated Political opposition and its press silenced

  21. Discontent arising from a) unfavorable economic situation & b) unpopularity of the reforms A plot to assasinate Mustafa Kemal June 1926 Led by Ziya Hurşit Prominent Unionists and PRP adherants arrested Accused of planning a coup d’etat Kara Kemal, regarded as the brain behind the attempt Death sentence - Shot himself

  22. 1927 – End of the troubled post-war period Second Congress of the RPP Retrospectively adopting Sivas as first congress

  23. 36-hour Speech (Nutuk) A report on the national movement from 1919 to 1927 Vindication / justification of the purges (1925-1926) Criticism of the former leaders of PRP Disregard the earlier phase of the resistance Nutuk determined historical vision of the genesis of New Turkish State


  25. NATIONALISM Nationalism based on the sovereignty of the nation ( Hakimiyet-i Milliye – Ulusal Egemenlik ) The task of building a national state Ulusal Devlet A culturally homogeneous Turkey From Nation-State to National State Nation-State = Economic entity Strengthening a feeling of national consciousness in the individual Türk( Ulusal bilinç )

  26. POPULISM Adaptation of Western ideas of democracy to domestic needs A mean of securing social unity around the ideals of nationalism

  27. A society to be composed not of classes but of individuals assembled in occupational groups (businessmen, government officials, farmers, craftsmen) dependent of each other A consentual society Economic interests of any not conflicting with others’

  28. The People’s Party ( Halk Fırkası ) – ( Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası 1924 ) “the synthesis of the people”, the sole representative of all these groups, uniting link among them.

  29. The First Program of the Party (1931) Populism is the means of preserving the unity of Turkish society by not yielding to class struggle. Rejection of class-structure

  30. REFORMS The ultimate purpose: Modernity Modernization of Turkish society by supplanting its traditionalist, emotional ways and customs with rationalist, modernist ideas

  31. CITIZEN - YURTTAŞ New individual or citizen (Yurttaş) a)rationalist b)anti-traditionalist c)anti-clerical person

  32. 1924 Abolition of religious courts (Şer’i mahkemeler) 1925 The shrines, sects, convents and monasteries closed. ( türbe, tekke, zaviye) Sartorial reforms – Concerned with men’s clothes Religious vestments - clothes or insignia by persons not holding religious office forbidden Civil servants to wear the clothes common to the civilized nations – Western suit and hat

  33. 1925 European calender (Gregorian) adopted International solar calendar (miladî takvim)replaced Islamic lunar one(hicrî takvim) 24-Hour International Clock replacing time concept based on prayer timing Zevâlî Vakit instead of Ezânî Vakit

  34. Changes in symbols 1925 All men to wear hat Wearing of fez = Criminal offence The hat (western style) replaced the fez (Mahmud II) Hierarchical titles (Paşa) abolished Economic / Financial Reforms The religous / tithe tax(aşar) abolished Secular / indirect taxes replaced thembasically istihlak vergileri ve muamele vergisi (quasi VAT)

  35. Legal Reforms • The Civil Code of Switzerland • Obligations Code (Borçlar Kanunu) • Penal (Criminal) Code (Ceza Kanunu) • Commercial Code(Ticaret Kanunu) • Maritime Code (Deniz Ticaret Kanunu) • Civil and Criminal Procedure (Usul Kanunları) • A new system of judicature / administration of justice

  36. The Civil Code of Switzerland replaced the Mecelle based on Şeriat, family relations, including women’s status on Western foundation

  37. Abolition of religious marriage, repudiation [boş ol !] & polygamy Civil marriage & divorce Inheretance Equal rights for both parties Marriage of a Muslim woman to a non-Muslim man permitted Adults given legal right to change religion No more penalty for “tenassur”

  38. A new Law School in Ankara (1925) – Revolutionary law challenging positivistic İstanbul Law Faculty Visibility due to low degree of literacy Visual / visible reforms (Post-modern reforms) versus - socio-economic reform partly due to political concerns Land Reform postponed until 1945

  39. The first statues of Mustafa Kemal in 1926 unveiled in Istanbul at Sarayburnu . Then statues in Ankara (Canonica) in 1927 and Taksim in 1928 (Islam oppressed reproduction of the human figure)

  40. 1928 Western numerals adopted, (Arabic figures) Romanization Latin alphabet replaced Arabic script. National schools (millet mektepleri) a campaign to teach new “Turkish letters” to adults

  41. 1928 Disestablishment of Islam 2. Article of the Constitution: The religion of the Turkish state is Islam Islam as an official religion struck from the Constitution Arabic and Persian deleted from high school curricula replaced by Western languages: French, German, English

  42. Language Reform First phase: 1910s’ – Genç Kalemler Ömer Seyfettin, Ziya Gökalp, Ali Cânib, etc Second phase: 1930s’ The establishment of Turkish Language Institute (Türk Dil Kurumu) The Sun-Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi) Romantic theory: all languages stemmed from Turkish

  43. 1930-1932 Conversion of Turkish Hearths (Türk Ocakları) into People’s Houses (Halk Evleri) and People’s Rooms 1932 Turkish Historical Society (Türk Tarih Kurumu) Revision of Turkish history.

  44. 1930 Women to vote in municipal elections 1935 Women voted for and elected to the National Assembly. 1934 Ecclesiastical garb forbidden outside the mosques. 1935 Family name (Soyadı) law replaced Arab nomenclature Weekly holiday from Friday to Sunday

  45. Autoritarian modernism rather than totalitarian tendencies Totalitarianism requires media & propoganda

  46. RPP – a power monopoly An authoritarian One-Party Regime Not a dictatorship or totalitarian regime Free discussion – Closed meetings of the parliament Assembly votes – not a mere formality Parliaments create their own opposition Four-yearly parliamentary elections – no ceremonial function Slates of candidates for parliamentary seats

  47. Congress of 1931 Political system – officially – One-Party State No independent “Kemalist” ideology RPP – led by the secretary-general RPP dominated by member of the TBMM Prime minister – executive chairman President – Party chairman State & Party closely identified

  48. Congruency between state apparatus & party organisation 1936 Governor of province – head of RPP branch A ‘tame’ opposition party (1931) No legal opposition Underground oppositon Insignificant communist movement Kurdish nationalism Dersim (Tunceli) 1937-8 Kurds forcibly resettled in the west

  49. Widespread resentment - Authoritarian behaviour of the RPP - Favouritism and corruption - Lack of civil liberties - Reform policies World economic crisis Turkey hardly hit – agricultural producer

  50. A loyal opposition party Channelling the social discontent Shaking up lethargic RPP Fethi (Okyar) – offered to found a new party Free Republican Party – Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası Faithful to the ideals of republicanism ad secularism Liberal economic policy Encouragement of foreign investment Freedom of speech Direct elections rather than two-tier elections