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14,15,16 PowerPoint Presentation

14,15,16

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14,15,16

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  1. 14,15,16

  2. “civilized” world • Materially – high standard of living, ocean liners, cars, electricity • Secular outlook on life • Low death rate • Low infant mortality rate • European family pattern – smaller families • Growth of urban centers and urban life

  3. Freedom of movement • Immigration into various countries outside of Europe • Migration within Europe • Liberalism?

  4. New Industrial Revolution • Use of steam power • Growth of metallurgical industries • Advent of the railroad • Electricity • Internal combustion engine • Chemistry – creation of synthetic fibers • Germany, Britain and France – major industrial powers

  5. Free Trade • Advent of free trade • Buying more imports than what you export • British paid for imports with invisible exports – shipping and insurance • Export of European capital – investment of profits into other parts of the world instead of back to workers • Gold Standard – how did it affect debtor nations? • Limited liability corporation

  6. French Third Republic • Established after loss in Franco Prussian War • Conservatives vs Republicans • Dreyfus Affair – bring down republic • Domestication of republicanism

  7. British • Advance toward an egalitarian political democracy very slow • Reform bill of 1832 – granted the right to vote to about 1/8th of people • We will see Britain granting the right to vote to more and more people • We will also see the rise of British Labor and Labor party during this time period • Disraeli – Conservative • Gladstone – Liberals – abandoned laissez faire and active state intervention

  8. Bismarck • Kulturkampf – Battle against Catholics –uses liberals to wage “war” • Abandons liberals – drops free trade and uses Catholics • Repress socialism with active socialist legislation • Realpolitik?

  9. 1871-1914 • Rise and importance of labor unions • Come about due to the extension of suffrage to lower classes • British were most advanced in trade unionism • They brought into being and led the Labor Party – they will be less socialistic than labor parties on the continent

  10. First International • Association with the crazy and violent Paris Commune • Many will not want to be associated with this

  11. Revisionist and Revolutionary Socialism • Marxism will turn into parliamentary socialism • Belief that workers or unions could work with the state to improve working conditions/wages • Revisionist socialists – Marx might be wrong – class struggle might not be necessary • Capitalism can be transformed

  12. Arts / intellectual currents • Charles Darwin – Origin of the species • Social darwinism • Changing views of Nature • Sigmund Freud – The Interpretation of dreams – • Impact on idea of rational individual • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity – matter was transmutable • Time, space and motion were not absolute in character, but relative

  13. Nietzsche • Held a low opinion of modern democratic societies • Developed concept of superman – a new kind of noble being who would create new ethical values • Rejected qualities of humility, patience, hopefulness, hope and love • Encouraged qualities of danger, courage, intellectual excellence • Critique of reason and rationality

  14. Waning of classical liberalism • Liberalism of John Locke, John Stuart Mill, - principle idea in liberty of the individual • Contributed to growth of women’s rights • Free trade • Parliamentary democracy • Eventually….universal male suffrage • What happened???

  15. New Liberalism • Economic problems associated with capitalism leads to adoption of economic nationalism – tariffs, decline of free trade • Growth of welfare state – active state intervention

  16. 1871-1914 - Imperialism • Imperialism – • Causes – • Differences from earlier colonialism • Highest stage of capitalism? • Social Darwinism

  17. Imperialism • Sick Man of Europe – Ottoman empire falling apart and the “scramble” to get the scraps • Attempts at reform – Abdul Hamid – and backlash • Russian invasion – Berlin Congress – mediate balance of power • Egypt and the Suez Canal and British intervention and Egypt as protectorate

  18. Partitioning of Africa • Livingstone and Stanley and the Congo • Stanley and King Leopold and Congo • Berlin Congress of 1885 – rules of conquest • Friction between major powers – Fashoda Crisis between England and France • Boer War in South Africa

  19. India • British rule goes from India Company to direct rule

  20. China • Open Door Policy • Extraterritorial rights • Spheres of influence • Boxer Rebellion

  21. Japan • Meiji restoration kicks out imperialists • Japan becomes an imperialist nation itself • Russo Japanese war – win!