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Bullying: Health and Intervention

Bullying: Health and Intervention

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Bullying: Health and Intervention

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  1. Bullying: Health and Intervention ElyssaLazu Ed 7202T Action Research Midterm

  2. Table Of Contents • Statement of the Problem • Literature Review • Hypothesis • Participants/Instruments • Research Design • Threats to Internal/External Validity • Procedure • Discussion/Implications • Results • References

  3. Statement of the Problem • A major issue within the school system and school systems have not done all they can to prevent them. (Sylvester, 2011) • It has become a major concern on long-term and short-term health. • Long-term consequences of being bullied may lead to serious mental health problems, such as depression or suicidal thoughts (Fritz, 2006). • Lack of awareness and adult involvement. (Atlas & Pepler, 2001) • Not a priority until a tragedy occurs (suicide).(Goodwin, 2011)

  4. Literature ReviewHealth Concerns • The American Medical Association has designated school bullying a public health concern (Graham & Bellmore, 2007) • Direct Bullying Victims and bully/victims had unusual repeated sore throats, colds or coughs, breathing problems, nausea, and poor appetite. Also made up illnesses to stay home. ( Wolke, Woods & Bloomfield, 2001) • Associations between victims not being able to sleep well, bed wetting, feeling sad, increased headaches and belly aches. (Williams, Chambers, Logan, & Robinson, 1996) • School nurse logs showed frequent visits with somatic illnesses was a cause for concern. Involvement in bullying can have negative effects on a child's health and should be followed up with their Dr. ( Vernberg, Nelson, Fonagy & Twemlow, 2011)

  5. Hypothesis • Integrating an anti-bullying instructional unit to 10 students (9 boys, 1 girl) in an urban setting in Queens New York, during the morning for 40 minutes twice a week over a 4 week period will decrease bullying and promote awareness.

  6. Participants/ Instruments Participants Instruments Sample of convenience=10 students from various schools throughout NYC Ten elementary school students (age range from 9-11) nine boys, one girl Parent Release Forms Permission to participate in research Pre and Post Student Surveys Safety in schools, awareness Parent health Questionnaire Report on health issues

  7. Research Design • Research Design: Pre-Experimental • One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design • Symbolic Design: OXO • Single group is pretested (O), exposed to a treatment (X), and post tested (O). • The same hypothetical treatment will be given to one group, twice a week, in the morning, for a four week period. • Students will sit together on carpet for the read aloud and role play

  8. Threats Internal Validity External Validity History: Student/teacher absence Instrumentation: Surveys can have fake answers or misinterpretations Maturation: Loss of interest due to fatigue etc. Testing/Pre-testing Sensitization: hints regarding post-test Selection Maturation Interaction: students differ, possibly repetitive Pre-test treatment: Students try to remember questions from pre-test Experimenter Effects: Researcher Bias with high to low mean Reactive arrangement: Try harder because of the testing notion

  9. Procedure • Pretest Administration • Student Survey • Parent health questionnaire • Group exposed to a treatment • Hypothetical treatment was given twice a week, role play and read aloud • Posttest Administration • Student survey post test identical to pretest to analyze any changes from pre-test

  10. Discussion/ Implications • The results support the theorists ideologies and current research: • Hypothetical treatment showed test scores to have increased from their pre test to post test • Needs further research with actual implementation of role play and literature into bullying interventions • Further research providing bullying prevention strategies • Further research should be done throughout an entire school with a longer study • Safe to assume higher post test scores are related to intervention and lower pre test scores are due to not having intervention

  11. Results • The bar graph represents that bullying being a problem reduced .4 by post-test

  12. Results Brief Analysis: A fair positive correlation 0.04438 suggests that students being afraid of school caused parents to be concerned that it was due to illness

  13. Results There was .9 increase from the pre test to the post test after hypothetical intervention Mean:3.0 Mode:3 Mean:2.1 Mode:2

  14. References • Atlas, R. S. & P. D. J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92, 86-99. Retrieved from • Bauer, N. S., Lozano, P., & Rivara, F. P. (2007). The effectiveness of the olweus bullying prevention program in public middle schools: A controlled trial. Journal of Adolescent Health,40, 266-274. • Brock, S.E. (n.d.) Experimental Research Powerpoint. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved from • Dervin, D., (2011). 2010: The year of the bully. Journal of Psychohistory,38(4), 337-345. • Entenman, J., Murnen, T. J., & Hendricks, C. (2005). Victims, bullies, and bystanders in K-3 literature. International Reading Association, 59(4), 352-364. • Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F.I.M. , Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2005) Bullying: who does what, when and where? Involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior. Health Education Research, 20, 81-91. Retrieved from • Ferguson, C.J., San Miguel, C., Killburn, Jr., J. C., & Sanchez, P. (2007). The effectiveness of school based-anti-bullying programs. Criminal Justice Review, 32 (4), 401-414

  15. References • Good, C. P., McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into schoolwide positive behavior support. Teaching exceptional children, 44(1), 48-56. Retrieved by • Goodwin, B., (2011). Bullying is common and subtle. Educational Leadership, 69(1), 82-84. • Graham, S., & Bellmore, A. D. (2007). Peer victimization and mental health during early adolescence. Theory into practice, 46 (2), 138-146. • Kochenderfer-Ladd, & Pelletier, M. E. (2008). Teachers' views and beliefs about bullying: Influences on classroom management strategies and students' coping with peer victimization. Journal of School Psychology , 431-453. Retrieved from • Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094-2100. Retrieved from:

  16. References • O’Connor-Petruso, S. (2013). Descriptive Statistic Threats to Validity [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from • Olweus, D. (2003). A profile of bullying at school. Educational Leadership, 60(6), 12-17. Retrieved from • Roberts, E. E. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying each intervention prevents. ARECLS, 8, 75-94. Retrieved from • Roland, E., & Galloway, D. (2002). Classroom influences on bullying. Educational Research, 44 (3), 299-312. Retrieved from: • Siegle, D. (2010). Cyber bullying and sexting: Technology abuses of the 21st century. Gifted Child Today, 33(2) 14-16 • Sylvester, Ruth (2011) Teacher as bully: Knowingly and unintentionally harming students. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin v. 77 no. 2. Retrieved from

  17. References • Williams, K. , Chambers, M. , Logan, S. , and Robinson, D. (1996). Association of common health symptoms with bullying in primary school children. British Medical Journal, 313, 17-19.Retrieved from • Wolke, D., Woods, S., Bloomfield, L., Karstadt. (2001). Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems. Arch Dis Child, 85, 197-201. Retrieved from • Vernberg, M. E., Nelson, D. T., Fonagy, P., Twemlow, W. S (2011). Victimization, aggression, and visits to the school nurse for somatic complaints, illnesses, and physical injuries. Journal of Pediatrics, 127, 842-848. Retrieved from • Yerger, W., & Gheret, C. (2011). Understanding and dealing with bullying in schools. The Education Forum, 75 (4), 315-326. Retrieved from • Young, T. A., & Ward, B. A. (2011). Bullies in recent books for children and young adults. Retrieved from