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## Propositional Logic – The Basics (2)

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**Propositional Logic – The Basics (2)**Truth-tables for Propositions**Assigning Truth**True or false? – “This is a class in introductory-level logic.” “This is a class in introductory-level logic, which does not include a study of informal fallacies.” “This is a class in introductory-level logic, which does not include a study of informal fallacies.” L● ~F**How about this one?**“This is a class in introductory logic, which includes a study of informal fallacies.” “This is a class in introductory logic (T), which includes a study of informal fallacies (F).” L● F TF F**Propositional Logic and Truth**The truth of a compound proposition is a function of: • The truth value of it’s component, simple propositions, plus • the way its operator(s) defines the relation between those simple propositions. p ● q p v q T F T F F T**Truth Table Principles and Rules**Truth tables enable you to determine the conditions under which you can accept a particular statement as true or false. Truth tables thus define operators; that is, they set out how each operator affects or changes the value of a statement.**Truth and the Actual World**Some statements describe the actual world - the existing state of the world at “time x”; the way the world in fact is. “This is a logic class and I am seated in SOCS 203.” - Actually and currently true on a class day. - Possibly true, but not “currently” true on Monday, Wednesday or Friday.**Truth and Possible Worlds**Some statements describe possible worlds - particular states of the world at “time y”; a way the world could be.. “This is a history class and I am seated in SOCS 203.” Possibly true, but not currently true. Actually true, if you have a history class here and it is a history class day/time. A truth table describes all possible combinations of truth values for a statement. It will, in fact, even tell you if a statement could not possibly be true in any world.**Constructing Truth Tables**1. Write your statement in symbolic form. 2. Determine the number of truth-value lines you must have to express all possible conditions under which your compound statement might or might not be true. Method: your table will represent 2n power, where n = the number of propositions symbolized in the statement. 3. Distribute your truth-values across all required lines for each of the symbols (operators will come later). Method: Divide by halves as you move from left to right in assigning values.**Constructing Truth Tables - # of Lines**For statement forms, there are only two symbols. Thus, these require lines numbering 22 power, or 4 lines.**Constructing Truth Tables – Distribution across all**Symbols Under “p,” divide the 4 lines by 2. In rows 1 & 2 (1/2 of 4 lines), enter “T.” In rows 3 & 4, (the other ½ of 4 lines), enter “F.” TTFF TTFF**Constructing Truth Tables – Distribution across all**Symbols Under “q,” divide the 2 “true” lines by 2. In row 1 (1/2 of 2 lines), enter “T.” In row 2, (the other ½ of 2 lines), enter “F.” Repeat for lines 3 & 4, inserting “T” and “F” respectively. TTFF TTFF TF TF TF TF**Constructing Truth Tables – Operator Definitions**Thinking about the corresponding English expressions for each of the operators, determine which truth value should be assigned for each row in the table. TTFF TTFF T TF TF T FF FFF TF TF T**Constructing Truth Tables - # of Lines**Remember that you are counting each symbol, not how many times symbols appear. 2 symbols: 1 appearance of “p” and 2 appearances of “q”**Exercises - 1**Using the tables which define the operators, determine the values of this statement. ( M > P ) v ( P > M ) TTFF TFTT TFTF TTTT TFTF TTFT TTFF**Exercises – 2**Using the tables which define the operators, determine the values of this statement. TTTTFFFF TTFFTTTT TTFFTTFF TTFFTFTF FFFFTTTT TTTTFFFF TTTTTFTF TFTFTFTF FFFFFFFF FFFTFFFT TTFFTTFF TTTFTTTF TFTFTFTF TTFFTTFF