Discussion Questions: True or False • 1) The true meaning of a poem can only be understood by the person who wrote it. • 2) Poems are always about emotions. • 3) No poem can ever be completely understood. • 4) A good poem makes you feel an emotion • 5) Poems have to use standard grammar rules
WHAT IS POETRY? • Poetry is a way of expressing thoughts and feelings in an imaginative, suggestive language. • Poets often try to capture in words what painters and photographers can achieve with shapes and colors.
GUIDELINES FOR CLOSE READING OF POETRY • Read the poem out loud at least once • Follow punctuation • Look for key words and descriptions • Write paraphrases of lines in your mind to determine meaning • Find it’s central idea or meaning
Why Punctuation is Important: • Woman without her man is nothing. • Half of the class punctuated the sentence in the following way: Woman: without her, man is nothing. • The other half of the class responded with the following: Woman, without her man, is nothing.
Grammar: Capitalization Rules Page 246 • Capitalize the first word in every sentence • Exercise 1 Complete & Review • Traditionally, the first word of a line of poetry is capitalized • Capitalize the first word of a directly quoted sentence. • Capitalize the first word in both the salutation and the closing of a letter. • Capitalize the pronoun/and the interjection O. • Exercise 2 Complete & Review • Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives • Capitalize the names of persons and animals • Capitalize initials in names and abbreviations that come before or after names.
Capitalization Rules Cont. • Capitalize geographical names (places) • Exercise 3 Complete and review (page 250) • Capitalize the names of organizations, teams, government bodies, and institutions. • Capitalize the names of historical events and periods, special events, holidays and other calendar items. • Capitalize the names of nationalities, races, and peoples • Capitalize the names of religions and their followers, holy days, and celebrations, sacred writings, and specific deities. • Capitalize the names of businesses and the brand names of business products. • Capitalize the names of planets, stars, constellations, and other heavenly bodies
Capitalization Rules Cont. • Capitalize the names of ships, trains, aircraft, and spacecraft. • Capitalize the names of awards, memorials, and monuments. • Capitalize the names of particular buildings and other structures. • Exercise 4 Complete and Review (page 254) • Capitalize the first and last words and all important words in titles and subtitles. • Chapter review
POETRY • A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas).
STRUCTURES • One of the most difficult tasks is to match the content of a poem to the form that is best suited for it.
POETRY FORM • FORM - the appearance of the words on the page • LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem • STANZA - a group of lines arranged together • A word is dead • When it is said, • Some say. • I say it just • Begins to live • That day.
KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza Septet = a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza
Sonnets • There are several different types of Sonnets and they each have a different Rhyme Scheme. • Even though all sonnets have exactly 14 lines and they are generally written in Iambic Pentameter, many authors chose to invent their own Rhyme Scheme. • You can invent your own, as well. This is a Shakespearean Sonnet and it might be Shakespeare’s most famous one. Of course, that is debatable.
MANHOLE COVERS (354) Bethlehem Steel Closes
SPEAKER • When you read a poem ask yourself who is speaking. • The speaker in a poem may be the poet, the voice in the poem could be a fictional character or an object. • In a a dramatic poem their may be more than one speaker.
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET • The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER • The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
Punctuation: Exercises 1: 266 • A statement is followed by a period (a declarative). • A question (or interrogative sentence) is followed by a question mark. • An exclamation (or exclamatory sentence) is followed by an exclamation point. • A command or request (or imperative sentence) is followed by either a period or an exclamation point. • Exercise 1 (pg. 266)
Punctuation Cont. • Use a period after certain abbreviations (Ida. B. Wells) • Abbreviate social titles whether used before the full name or before the last name alone (Mr. , Mrs.) • You may abbreviate civil and military titles used before full names or before initials and last names. Spell such titles out before last names used alone (Sen., Brig. Gen, Prof. ) • Abbreviate titles and academic degrees that follow proper names. • Acronyms (AMA = American Medical Association) • Geographical Terms (Tucson, Ariz. ) • Time (A.D, B.C) • Units of Measurement (tsp , mph) • Exercise 2 complete and review (page 270)
SOUND PATTERNS • Poets, like musicians are sensitive to the effects of sound. • Varying rhythms, use harsh or melodious words that create a sound to convey a particular mood. • In combination, these devices can give a poem a rich texture of sound, which is pleasurable in itself and which also enhances the poem’s meaning.
RHYTHM • The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem • Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
METER • A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. • Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. • When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
METER cont. • FOOT - unit of meter. • A foot can have two or three syllables. • Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. • TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables. (cont.)
Iambic - unstressed, stressed Trochaic - stressed, unstressed Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed
FREE VERSE POETRY • Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. • Does NOT have rhyme. • Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you. • A more modern type of poetry.
BLANK VERSE POETRY • Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. Julius Cesar: Excerpt Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
RHYME • Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. • (A word always rhymes with itself.)
Slant Rhyme Bridge/Grudge Moon/On Hinge/Orange
Slant Rhyme There are multitudes of names for words that almost rhyme.
END RHYME • A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line: Hector the Collector • Collected bits of string. • Collected dolls with broken heads • And rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYME • A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. • Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. • From “The Raven” • by Edgar Allan Poe
ONOMATOPOEIA • Words that imitate the sound they are naming • BUZZ • OR sounds that imitate another sound • “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of • each purple curtain . . .”
ALLITERATION • Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of word. • If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? • Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck,