Aerial Lifts and Elevated Platform Safety
Introduction DISCLAIMERThis training material presents very important, pertinent information. It should not be assumed, however, that this program satisfies every legal requirement of every state. Some states require the training be developed and delivered by an individual with specific training and experience. This training is AWARENESS LEVEL and does not authorize any person to perform work or validate their level of competency; it must be supplemented with operation and process-specific assessments and training, as well as management oversight, to assure that all training is understood and followed. Your organization must do an evaluation of all exposures and applicable codes and regulations. In addition, establish proper controls, training, and protective measures to effectively control exposures and assure compliance. This program is neither a determination that the conditions and practices of your organization are safe, nor a warranty that reliance upon this program will prevent accidents and losses or satisfy local, state, or federal regulations. How to Use this Presentation This presentation contains base material for use in an instructor-led training setting. You may modify this presentation to satisfy the specific training needs of your organization. On some slides, the display text is supplemented with additional material in the slide notes. This content is licensed for modification and use in a classroom setting. You may not redistribute this material in any form.
Introduction Introduction This course will introduce you to aerial lift and elevated platform safety. Aerial lifts provide a simple means of performing tasks that would otherwise be out of reach. However, if used without proper training and precautions, they can also offer the potential for severe injury or death. The following slides contain: • An outline of personnel responsibilities. • The different types of lifts you may use. • Common hazards and preventative controls. • Inspection and operation best practices. ! Approximately 30 Americanslose their life each year as a result of aerial lift accidents.
Introduction Course Overview • Personnel Responsibilities • Types of Aerial Lifts • Hazard Assessment and Inspections • Hazards and Controls
1 What you need to know: Operator responsibilities Management responsibilities Responsible party responsibilities Personnel Responsibilities
1 Personnel Responsibilities Operators Lift operators must assure that they are using aerial lifts safely and following all requirements. Responsibilities: • Completing proper training and demonstrating knowledge before using an aerial lift • Reading and understanding the applicable operator manuals • Adhering to guidelines, practices for safe use, and manufacturer recommendations Qualifications: For each individual type of lift, operators must be separately qualified and authorized.
1 Personnel Responsibilities Management Management is responsiblefor the development of aerial lift safety programs. Management must assure that the following documentation tasks are complete: • Documenting the safety programs • Distributing all appropriate manufacturer documentation and including it in weatherproof containers on the platform or mobile unit Appropriate documentation includes the following: • Operator’s manuals • Maintenance manuals • Any safety documentation from the manufacturer
1 Personnel Responsibilities Management Management must assure the following work practices are followed: • Operators follow the safety program, all safety documentation, and other outlined responsibilities. • Regular pre-operation inspections occur. • Any hazards found during inspections are addressed. • Platforms are subject to regular preventative maintenance. • Any lift repairs or modifications done by an entity other than the manufacturer require written authorization from the manufacturer or a nationally recognized, ANSI-compliant testing laboratory. * These practices should be documented in the safety program.
1 Personnel Responsibilities Responsible Party Lift operation responsibilities: • Selects and authorizes operators, based on experience and physical qualifications • Assures that unauthorized persons do not operate lifts • Assures that the lift is only used for intended applications as defined in the operating manual • Assures that recognized safety practices are followed The employer appoints a responsible party to write and implement the aerial lift safety program. Training responsibilities: • Assures that all operators’ training is current • Schedules training and retraining
1 Personnel Responsibilities Responsible Party Inspections and maintenance responsibilities: • Schedules and oversees inspections and preventative maintenance • Assures that lifts are equipped with required safety equipment (e.g., overrides, back-up beepers, and anchor points for fall protection) • Assures that lifts are not operated if they are out of compliance with their applicable maintenance schedules Administrative responsibilities: • Maintains training and inspection records
2 What you need to know: Types of aerial lifts Criteria for lift selection Types of Aerial Lifts
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Articulating Boom Lifts Characteristics: • They have two or more hinged boom sections. • The platform moves many directions: • Outward from the base • Up and down • Left and right Requirements: • Only use these lifts on a level operating surface. • Use fall protection.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Elevated Work Platforms Characteristics: • Designed to elevate a platform on a vertical axis • Stationary after setup Requirements: They contain fall protection in the form of guardrails. Additional fall protection is not required, but it is highly recommended as a best practice.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Extensible Boom Platforms Characteristics: Extensible boom platforms have extending, telescopic booms and personnel platform attachments. Requirements: • Only use these lifts on a level operating surface. • Use fall protection.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Scissor Lifts Characteristics: • They are typically able to lift more than one person at a time. • Scissor lifts can be moved while the platform is raised. • The platform only moves on a vertical axis. Requirements: Scissor lifts include guardrails to minimize the risk of falling. Additional fall protection is not required but is highly recommended as a best practice.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Trailer-Mounted Aerial Lifts This boom is both articulated and telescoping. Characteristics: • Trailer-mounted lifts include extendable or folding outriggers. • The lift boom may be articulated, telescoping, or both. • They are towed to worksites. Requirements: • Un-hitch the lift before use. • Engage the outriggers during use. • Use fall protection.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Vehicle-Mounted Aerial Lifts Characteristics: • Vehicle-mounted lifts typically have a bucket for one person. • The lift boom may be articulated, telescoping, or both. Requirements: • Use fall protection. • During operation: • Engage brakes. • Chock wheels. • Extend outriggers. This boom is articulated but not telescoping.
2 Types of Aerial Lifts Selecting the Correct Lift To select the right lift, consider the needs and hazards of the job. • Lifting height and capacity: Know the maximum height to comfortably perform the task and the weight of all personnel and equipment. • Worksite and equipment dimensions: Make sure that your worksite can to accommodate the lift and that your platform is large enough for the required personnel and equipment. • Terrain type: Make sure that the lift can safely traverse the worksite’s terrain and remain stable. • Power source: Verify that you will be able to adequately power the lift and that the power source is compatible with the work area (e.g., no gas-powered units in a confined space). • Transportation: Verify that the lift can be easily delivered to the work area. ! Aerial lifts may only be used per the manufacturer’s specifications.
3 What you need to know: The site hazard assessment Pre-operation inspections How to properly test lifts Tagging defective lifts Hazard Assessment and Inspections
3 Hazard Assessment and Inspections The Site Hazard Assessment Prior to beginning work, examine the site to assure that conditions allow for the safe use of an aerial lift. Safe conditions: • Terrain is level, stable, and strong enough to support the lift. • The area is free from obstructions. • Pedestrian and traffic access is controlled. • The area is not exposed to strong wind or weather. • The area is free from exposed electrical hazards. • The area is not subject to any other hazardous conditions that may cause injury or damage to personnel or equipment.
3 Hazard Assessment and Inspections Pre-Operation Inspection Prior to each use, operators must perform a visual inspection of the lift. Required conditions: • Operation and maintenance manuals are located in the lift’s weatherproof storage compartment. • Fuel and other fluids are at recommended levels. • There is no structural damage or loose parts. • Tires are properly inflated and in good condition. • Hoses and lines have no leaks or other defects. • Outriggers and raising, lowering, or rotating components are in good condition. • All components of the crew platform or basket, including guardrails, gates, and fall protection anchor points, are in good condition. • Frequency: • The frequency of inspections is determined based on environment and severity of use. • Inspecting daily or prior to operation is best practice. Additional inspections: Additional inspections performed by qualified mechanics may be needed.
3 Hazard Assessment and Inspections Testing Prior to use, test the functionality of the lift’s controls. Test the following: • Driving controls • Platform manipulation controls • Emergency controls • Foot controls • Every function on each panel, both from the platform and the unit body • If functioning properly: • The platform or unit will move in the direction of the control. • Each control will automatically return to its neutral position when released.
3 Hazard Assessment and Inspections Defective Lifts Include the following information on the tag: • The name and department or position of the employee responsible for tagging the lift • The date and time of tagging • The contact information for the person responsible for repairs • All reasons for the lift’s removal from service • If you discover damage or defects: • Do not use the lift. • Report the defect immediately to your supervisor. • Immediately remove the lift from service. • Tag the lift. • Retain the keys to the lift. * If the tag does not allow enough room to list all deficiencies, you may attach a photocopy of the inspection form to the lift to assure that all deficiencies are noted.
4 What you need to know: Best practices Hazards of aerial lifts Safety controls Hazards and Controls
4 Hazards and Controls Mounting the Lift When mounting a lift: • Keep your body squared with the gate. • Maintain three points of contact. • Do not use any control surfaces or levers as hand-holds when mounting or dismounting. • Always close lift gates.
4 Hazards and Controls Preparing the Travel Path • Safe practices: • If any overhead cranes are in your path, assure that they are locked and tagged as out of service. • If using a boom lift, make sure to plan for the boom’s swing radius, and assure that personnel is clear. • If working near traffic, set up work-zone warnings (e.g., cones or signs). Inspection: Prior to using a lift, inspect your planned travel path for the following hazards: • Holes, curbs, slopes, drop-offs, or other uneven surface features • Ground that is unstable, soft, or incapable of supporting the weight of the lift • Overhead obstructions, including cranes Choose a path that is free of these hazards.
4 Hazards and Controls Moving the Lift • Drive slowly: Maintain a safe travel speed. • Always face the direction of travel. • Stay aware of surroundings: Watch for any blind spots, and use a safety spotter whenever necessary. • Avoid obstacles: Maintain a safe distance from holes, ramps, drop-offs, and any other features that could cause the platform to overturn. • Lower the platform: When traveling between work areas, lower the platform to increase stability. If this is not possible, proceed slowly and always keep the travel surface in view. • Be aware of platform orientation: Stay aware of changes in the platform’s orientation (e.g., if on a pivoting boom). * Make sure that all components of the lift are properly secured before transport to the worksite.
4 Hazards and Controls Moving the Lift Backing up: In order to protect the other employees in the area, do not back up the lift unless one of the following is true: • The driver has a clear rear view. • The lift has a back-up alarm. • Another employee serves as a spotter.
4 Hazards and Controls Destabilizing Factors • Exceeding the load capacity: Do not overload the lift with excess personnel, tools, or other materials. Thismay result in tip-over of the lift or structural failure. • Uneven terrain: Setting the lift on uneven terrain may also cause tipping. • Horizontal load capacity: Do not exceed your platform’s horizontal load capacity. This is any force applied to the platform from the side that could affect balance. • Entanglement: Ropes, cords, or hoses hanging outside of the platform. Excessive horizontal load may knock the lift off-balance and cause it to tip over.
4 Hazards and Controls Destabilizing Factors Best practices for maintaining stability: • Be sure that the lift’s capacities for weight and horizontal load are not exceeded. • Assure that no ropes, cords, or hoses are hanging outside of the platform. (Do not move the lift if they are.) • When raising or lowering the lift, do not allow the lift to contact or catch on any objects (e.g., exposed piping or wiring, walls, ceilings, or other vehicles). * A platform’s horizontal load and weight capacities can be found in the operator’s manual and may also be indicated on the platform’s data plate or warning labels.
4 Hazards and Controls Destabilizing Factors Best practices for maintaining stability (continued): • Watch for overhead obstacles. • Do not hoist items from an elevated platform. • Do not use the lift as a crane or rigging device unless such activity is approved by the manufacturer. • If the lift includes outriggers, they must be properly set prior to use, unless the manufacturer’s recommendations indicate that the lift can be used safely without them. • Keep outriggers in view while setting and make sure that all objects or personnel are clear from their motion.
4 Hazards and Controls Electrocution Electrical structures, such as overhead power lines or extension cords, can present electrical hazards to workers in aerial lifts. Precautions: • Do not allow equipment or materials to form a conduit between an electrical structure and an aerial lift while a worker is in the basket. • Maintain a safe distancefrom power lines. • Voltage Up To and Including 50,000 Volts • Most manufacturers recommend at least 10 feet of safe distance. • Above 50,000 volts, safe distances increase as voltage increases. Consult the operator’s manufacturer or the National Electric Code for information on appropriate distances. • Voltage Above 50,000 Volts
4 Hazards and Controls Electrocution Hazard assessments: • Conduct a hazard assessment. • The assessment will assist in the establishment of minimum approach distances (MADs), which are based on the specific electrical sources and magnitude, altitude, and worker qualifications. Controls: • Whenever possible, de-energize or insulate power lines. If that is not possible, use proper PPE and other electrical safety gear based on your hazard assessment. • Use insulated buckets near power lines, and regularly inspect the bucket insulation. • Distance: • For non-electrical workers: Stay at least 10 feet away from overhead power lines. • For electrical workers: Followestablished MADs.
4 Hazards and Controls Falls • Using fall protection: • Fall protection is required when using articulated or telescoping boom lifts. • Fall protection is a best practice when using any lift, including scissor lifts. • Refer to your employer’s policies and procedures to verify when fall protection is required. • When using fall protection: • Prior to use, inspect all components of the harness, lanyard, and anchor points. • Only connect to designated anchor points provided or approved by the manufacturer. • Never tie off outside the platform. Falling hazards: • Personnel or equipment falling from an elevated platform • Ground-based personnel or equipment being struck by falling objects
4 Hazards and Controls Falls To avoid falling from the lift: • Always stay inside the basket. • Keep both feet firmly planted on the floor. • While in motion, keep arms and hands inside the basket at all times. • While elevated, do not transfer to other platforms. • Do not strain to reach items: if something is out of your reach with both feet planted, including overhead objects, position the lift closer to the item. Avoiding struck-by hazards: • Use barriers and signs to keep personnel out from under lifts. • Personnel working around potential falling objects should wear necessary PPE, such as hard hats.
4 Hazards and Controls Environmental Hazards Employees in aerial lifts may encounter environmental hazards, such as toxic or asphyxiating gases, high winds, lightning, or storms. Managing weather hazards: • Avoid operating lifts outside in inclement weather. Atmospheric controls: • Limit the use of gas-powered devices indoors unless proper ventilation eliminates the risk of employee exposure to combustion gases. • Do not perform tasks with equipment that may react with the environment, e.g., welding in a combustible environment. • Hazardous environments may require ventilation and respiratory aids. Follow your organization’s respiratory protection program.
4 Hazards and Controls Personal Protective Equipment Appropriate PPE for working in an aerial lift typically includes the following: • Hard hat • Eye protection • Non-slip protective footwear • Fall protection • Any additional task-specific PPE
Summary Summary • Aerial lifts are inherently dangerous. • Each have responsibilities. • Different types have different requirements. • Consider all needs and hazards. • Complete training. • Know the required safety practices. • Assure you are properly qualified. • Conduct a thorough inspection.