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## The Ideal Gas Laws

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**The Ideal Gas Laws**Chapter 14**Expectations**After this chapter, students will: • Know what a “mole” is • Understand and apply atomic mass, the atomic mass unit, and Avogadro’s number • Understand how an ideal gas differs from real ones • Use the ideal gas equation, Boyle’s Law, and Charles’ Law, to solve problems**Expectations**After this chapter, students will: • understand the connection between the macroscopic properties of gases and the microscopic mechanics of gas molecules**Preliminaries: the Mole**A mole is a very large number of discrete objects, such as atoms, molecules, or sand grains. Specifically, it is Avogadro’s Number (NA) of such things: 6.022×1023 of them. The mole (“mol”) is not a dimensional unit; it is a label.**Amadeo Avogadro**1776 – 1856 Native of Turin, Italy Hypothesized that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contained equal numbers of molecules. (He was correct, too.)**The Mole and Atomic Mass**Mathematical definition: 12 g of C12 contains one mole of carbon-12 atoms. Mass of one C12 atom: The mass of one C12 atom is also 12 atomic mass units (amu), so:**The Mole and Atomic Mass**Atomic masses for the elements may be found in the periodic table of the elements, located inside the back cover of your textbook. These are often erroneously called “atomic weights.” Atomic masses may be added to calculate molecular masses for chemical compounds (or diatomic elements).**The Mole: Calculations**If we have N particles, how many moles is that? If we have a given mass of something, how many moles do we have? number of moles**The Ideal Gas**The notion of an “ideal” gas developed from the efforts of scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries to link the macroscopic behavior of gases (volume, temperature, and pressure) to the Newtonian mechanics of the tiny particles that were increasingly seen as the microscopic constituents of gases.**The Ideal Gas**An ideal gas was one whose particles are well-behaved, in terms of the Newtonian theory of collisions: elastic collisions and the impulse-momentum theorem. An ideal gas is one in which the particles have no interaction, except for perfectly-elastic collisions with each other, and with the walls of their container.**The Ideal Gas**An ideal gas has no chemistry. That is, the particles (atoms or molecules) have no tendency to “stick” to other particles through chemical bonds. Inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) at low densities are very good approximations to the ideal gas. Our analytic model of the ideal gas gives us insights into the properties of many real gases, inert or not.**The Ideal Gas Equation**Observations from experience The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of particles in a given space. Example: blow up a balloon, and you’re adding to n, the number of moles of molecules. Conclusion:**The Ideal Gas Equation**Observations from experience The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature. Example: toss a spray can into a fire (no, wait, really, don’t do it, just think about it). Increasing pressure will cause the can to fail catastrophically. Conclusion:**The Ideal Gas Equation**Observations from experience The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume. Example: squeeze the air in a half-filled balloon down to one end and squeeze it tighter. Increased pressure makes the balloon’s skin tight. Conclusion:**The Ideal Gas Equation**Combine the observations A constant of proportionality, R, makes this an equation:**The Ideal Gas Equation**The constant of proportionality, R, is called the universal gas constant. Its value and units depend on the units used for P, V, and T. Value and SI units of R: 8.31 J / (mol K) pressure volume absolute temperature universal gas constant number of moles**The Ideal Gas Equation**We can also write the ideal gas equation in terms of the number of particles, N, instead of the number of moles, n. Since N = n·NA, we can both multiply and divide the right-hand side by NA: Boltzmann’s constant**Ludwig Boltzmann**Austrian physicist 1844 – 1906**Boyle’s Law**Suppose we hold both n and T constant: how are P and V related? This is called Boyle’s Law.**Robert Boyle**Irish mathematician 1627 – 1691**Charles’ Law**Suppose we hold both n and P constant: how are T and V related? This is called Charles’ Law.**Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles**French scientist 1746 – 1823 Built and flew the first large hydrogen-filled balloon.**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**Macroscopic properties of a gas: temperature, pressure, volume, density Microscopic properties of the particles making up the gas: mass, velocity, momentum, kinetic energy How are they related?**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**Consider a gas molecule contained in a cube having edge length L. The molecule’s mass is m, and its velocity (in the X direction only) is v. Time between collisions with the right-hand wall:**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**The time between collisions with the right-hand wall is just the round-trip time: From the impulse-momentum theorem, we can calculate the average force exerted on the particle by the wall:**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**Substitute for the time and simplify: By Newton’s third law, the average force exerted on the wall is**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**The average force on the wall from one particle is If there are N particles, and their directions are random, we could expect 1/3 of them to be moving in the X direction. Total force on the wall:**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**Average pressure on the wall: But So:**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**Substituting kinetic energy: So, we see that for an ideal gas, the average molecular kinetic energy is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.**Kinetic Theory of the Ideal Gas**This result is true for any ideal gas. By a similar argument, if an ideal gas is monatomic (the gas particles are single atoms), the internal energy of n moles of the gas at an absolute temperature T is