1.3k likes | 1.54k Vues
Construction Engineering and Management . Instructor: Dr. Ayham Jaaron. Class Rules and Instructor Expectations Turn off your cell phone before you get inside the class room. Be on time and respect deadlines; late homework will not be accepted!
E N D
Construction Engineering and Management Instructor: Dr. AyhamJaaron
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Class Rules and Instructor Expectations • Turn off your cell phone before you get inside the class room. • Be on time and respect deadlines; late homework will not be accepted! • Participate and attend class: be ready and prepare well, that is the key to success! • Quizzes and exams will be closed-book. • Avoid Make-up/incomplete exams!
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Topics 1) Management Functions and introduction of construction project planning and scheduling 2)Construction scheduling techniques 3)Preparation and usage of bar charts 4)Preparation and usage of the Critical Path Method (CPM) 5)Preparation and usage of Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) 6)Issues relating to determination of activity duration 7)Contractual provisions relating to project schedules 8)Resource leveling and constraining 9)Time cost tradeoff 10)Schedule monitoring and updating. 11)Communicating schedule 12) Project control and earned value Control 13) claims, Safety and Quality control
What is the Project ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT In order to understand project management, one must begin with the definition of a project. A project can be considered to be any series of activities and tasks that :. ● Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications ● Have defined start and end dates ● Have funding limits ● Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment) ● Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several functional lines)
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT OR ‘‘a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result’’
Project Life Cycle ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT
Five Process group ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Successful project management can then be defined as having achieved the project objectives: ●Within Time ● Within Cost ● At the desired performance/Technology level ● While utilizing the assigned resources effectively and efficiently ● Accepted by the customer
What is Project Management ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT The potential benefits from project management are: ● Identification of functional responsibilities ● Minimizing the need for continuous reporting ● Identification of time limits for scheduling ● Identification of a methodology for trade-off analysis. ● Measurement of accomplishment against plans
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT The above definition requires further comment. Classical management is usually considered to have five functions or principles: ● Planning ● Organizing ● Staffing ● Controlling ● Directing
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Planning – Where the organization wants to be in the future and how to get there. Organizing – Follows planning and reflects how the organization tries to accomplish the plan. – Involves the assignment of tasks, grouping of tasks into departments, and allocation of resources.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Leading & Staffing – The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organization's goals. – Creating a shared culture and values, communicating goals to employees throughout the organization, and infusing employees to perform at a high level. Controlling – Monitoring employees' activities, determining if the organization is on target toward its goals, and making corrections as necessary
Management Skills ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Conceptual Skill—the ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship between its parts. Human Skill—The ability to work with and through people. Technical Skill—Mastery of specific functions and specialized knowledge
Constraints of the project ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Project management is designed to manage or control company resources on a given activity, within time, within cost, and within performance. Time, cost, and performance are the constraints on the project.
Resources ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT We have stated that the project manager must control company resources within time, cost, and performance. Most companies have six resources: ● Money ● Manpower ● Equipment ● Facilities ● Materials ● Information/technology
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Actually, the project manager does notcontrol any of these resources directly, except perhaps money (i.e., the project budget). • Resources are controlled by the line managers. • The project manager is responsible for coordinating and integrating activities across multiple, functional lines. The integration activities performed by the project manager include:
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT ● Integrating the activities necessary to develop a project plan ● Integrating the activities necessary to execute the plan ● Integrating the activities necessary to make changes to the plan
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Project Planning, Scheduling, and Control 1
Planning and Scheduling ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Planning and scheduling are two terms that are often thought of as synonymous • They are not! • Scheduling is just one part of the planning effort.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Project planning serves as a foundation for several • related functions such as cost estimating, scheduling, • and project control. • Project scheduling is the determination of the timing and sequence of operations in the project and their assembly to give the overall completion time
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Planning is the process of determining how a project will be undertaken. It answers the questions: 1. “What” is going to be done, 2. “how”, 3. “where”, 4. By “whom”, and 5. “when” (in general terms: start and finish). Scheduling deals with “when” on a detailed level… See Figure 1 .
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT The Plan What How much when By whom where How Why Figure 1 . Planning and Scheduling
The Plan ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Project management plan can be defined as a ‘‘formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled”. The plan can include elements that has to do with scope, design and alternate designs, cost, time, finance, land, procurement, operations, etc.
WHY SCHEDULE PROJECTS ? ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 1- To calculate the project completion. 2- To calculate the start or end of a specific activity. 3-To expose and adjust conflict between trades or subcontractor. 4- To predict and calculate the cash flow . 5-To evaluate the effect of changing purchasing orders .
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 6- To improve work efficiency. 7- To resolve delay claims , this is important in critical path method ‘CPM’ discussed later.. 8- To serve as an effective project control tool .
The Tripod of Good Scheduling System ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT The Human Factor : A proficient scheduler or scheduling team. 2. The Technology : A good scheduling computer system (software and hardware) 3. The Management : A dynamic, responsive, and supportive management. • If anyone of the above three ‘‘legs’’ is missing, the system will fail.
Scheduling and project management ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Planning, scheduling, and project control are extremely important components of project management. project management includes other components : • cost estimating and management, • procurement, • project/contract administration, • quality management, • and safety management. • These components are all interrelated in different ways.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Ch.2: Bar (Gantt) Charts 2
DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • A bar chart is ‘‘a graphic representation of project activities, shown in a time-scaled bar line with no links shown between activities’’ • The bar may indicate continuous work from the start of the activity until its end. • or • Non continuous (dashed) bars are sometimes used to distinguish between real work (solid line) and inactive periods (gaps between solid lines)
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Before a bar chart can be constructed for a project, the project must be broken into smaller, usually homogeneous components, each of which is called an activity, or a task. Item Activity M 10 Mobilization Bars ( Month or Year..etc )
ADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • 1- Time-scaled • 2- Simple to prepare • 3- Bars can be dashed to indicate work stoppage. • 4- Can be loaded with other information (budget, man hours, resources, etc.)
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Bar Charts Loaded with More Info. Such as : budget, man hours and resources . 500$ 220$ 400$ 850$ 140$ 500$ 900$ 10 12 7 11 10 9 15
DISADVANTAGES OF BAR CHARTS ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 1- Does not show logic of why mistakes occur. 2- Not practical for projects with too many activities • As a remedy, we can use bar charts to show: 1. A small group of the activities (subset) 2. Summary schedules
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Basic Networks 3
DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • A network is a logical and chronological graphic representation of the activities (and events) composing a project. • Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Two classic formats AOA: Activity on Arrow AON: Activity on Node Each activity labeled with Identifier (usually a letter/code) Duration (in std. unit like days) There are other variations of labeling There is 1 start & 1 end event Time goes from left to right
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 1. Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagram or (I-J) method (because activities are defined by the form node, I, and the to node, J) 2. Activities are represented by arrows. 3. Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities. 4. Can only show finish-to-start dependencies.
Basic Logic Patterns for Arrow Diagrams ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Node (Event) i Node (Event) j i Activity Name j j > i Each activity should have a unique i – j value (a) Basic Activity
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT A B 2 4 10 12 (b) Independent Activities A B 3 6 9 (c) Dependent Activities
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 4 A C 6 8 B 2 Activity C depends upon the completion of both Activities A & B (d) A Merge 6 B A 2 4 C 8 Activities B and C both depend upon the completion of Activity A (e) A Burst
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 12 18 A C 16 D B 14 20 Activities C and D both depend upon the completion of Activities A and B (f) A Cross
Example ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Draw the arrow network for the project given next.
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Solution : B D 30 A E 50 10 20 40 C
Dummy activity (fictitious) ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT • Used to complete logic, • It has a duration of “0” • It consumes no resources • It is only used to show relationships
ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT A 4 10 Divide node to correct B (a) Incorrect Representation A 4 10 B Dummy 11 (b) Correct Representation
Example ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Draw the arrow network for the project given next.
Solution : ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT B A D 40 10 20 30 C Improper solution B 30 Dummy D A 50 10 20 40 C proper solution
50 50 Example ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT Draw the arrow network for the project given next.