Age of Revolution and Imperialism1750-1914 Avery Dickinson Emily Patterson Racha Kabbani
American Revolution • Reasons for Revolution • Taxation without representation • Were deprived of trials by jury • Quartered troops among the colonists • Refused to approve laws for establishing an independent jury • Kept armies in colonies during peace • Extreme tariffs on trade • Lack of Judicial or Legislative representation
Main Events of American Revolution • Events • Boston Massacre • Intolerable Acts • Boston Tea Party • Treaty of Paris • Declaration of Independence • Battles • Lexington • Concord • Saratoga • Yorktown
Social Divisions • Groups • Patriots • Sons of Liberty • Loyalists (Torries) • Enlightenment Thinkers • Continental Congress • French • Quakers • Leaders • Samuel Adams • Benjamin Franklin • Thomas Jefferson • George Washington • King George III • General Cornwallis • Lafayette Patriots Loyalists
Consequences of War • National Effects • Had sovereignty over their country • Established themselves as a major power • Established the US constitution • Developed governmental principles • InternationalEffects • Britain lost its power over the US, so lost economical dominance • France became allies with the US
French Revolution • Reasons for Revolution • Unfair Tax System • Cost of living was rising • Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette spending the countries resources on material things • Louis XVI had parliament changed
Estates General • 1st Estate • Made of the Catholic Church • Owned 10% of the land • 2nd Estate • Made of nobles and the wealthy • Was 2% of the population • 3rd Estate • Made up of merchants and lower class • Was 98% of the population • Under represented; Were Enlightenment thinkers
Important Players • Louis XVI- King of France • National Assembly- wanted represenitive government; was primarily 3rd Estate • Legislative Assembly- power to create laws • National Convention –has new constitution • Committee of Public Safety- lead by Robespierre • Directory- two house legislature • Napoleon Bonaparte- took over after Robespierre; leader of Directory
Main Events • Tennis Court Oath- 3rd Estate was locked out of meeting room; developed constitution on tennis court • Storming of Bastille- July 14; made Bastille a prison • August 1789- NA adopts the “Rights of Man”; didn’t apply to women • 1790-NA reforms church; Catholics were offended • September 1791-NA gives power to LA • 1792- April: LA declares war on Austria; Radicals wanted revolution; September: National Convention was created • 1793- Louis XVI was executed; Used Guillotine until 1970s; Robespierre leads Public Safety; Reign of Terror begins • 1794- Robespierre is executed; ideas shifted from radical to conservative • 1795- NC adopts new constitution; Napoleon was found
The Haitian Revolution • Reasons for Revolution: • Cruel forces used to dominate slaves • Dictatorship; French Colony run by Robespierre • 500,000 slaves; used to grow cash crops • Exclusive French trading
Important Figures • Social Groups • African Slaves • Slave Owners • French soldiers used to control colony • Gran Blancs- plantation owners • Petite Blancs- poor white people • Creoles- French born Colonists • Gens de Coleur- free blacks • Molattos-half black and half white • Maroons- Runaway slaves • Leaders • Toussaint L’Ovuerture- Ex slave; leader of revolution • Priest Bukman- started revolution • Jean- Jacques- general who fought for freedom of slaves • Robespierre-Tried to abolished slavery • Le Clerc- French general supposed to stop rebellion
Turning Points • August 1791-Boukman called revolution and called 100,000 slaves • 1792- Robespierre tried to abolish slavery • 1800- Toussaint freed slaves in Santo Domingo • May 1802- Napoleon tried to fight, but instead compromises on outlawing slavery • 1804- Jean Jacques declares Haiti free; First black nation recognized by a European country
Latin American Revolutions Simon Bolivar (1783-1830), known as the “Liberator "in Latin America Upper class Creole in Venezuela, who became inspired from ideas of Enlightenment, and frustrated from injustice Spanish rule. Independence Movement- 1810; he promised to fight for the rights of mixed Latin Americans, and the emancipation of slaves 1819-1821, gained Venezuela and Colombia through war.
Brazilian Independence Slavery was still legal until the late 1880’s Racial tensions led to uprisings and guerrilla wars Independence was smooth, unlike other countries In 1822, Pedro declared independence , created a constitutional monarchy and declared himself Pedro I. Pedro I was the son of the King of Portugal, who told Pedro I if Brazil comes to independence, he claims the independence.
Mexican War of Independence 1810-1823 Main Events Sept. 1810, Miguel Hidalgo called for a revolution against Spain. (Wanted independence and social injustice from Spain) 1811- Hidalgo was killed, and Jose Maria Morelos took over, but he was killed in 1815, because he had the lower class support , he was killed by the upper class Mexicans. 1820-1821 Augustin Iturbide overthrew Spanish rule, he wanted a dictatorship but he got overthrown. 1823 Mexican Republic , and the nations of Latin America established the United Provinces of Central America
Political Difficulties Political breakdown of smaller states: Rio De Plata, and Gran Colombia Failure of Constitutional rule (Bolivar drafted constitutions based on Napoleon Law Code and American and French Revolutions, but they were never carried out) Dictatorial rule of Caudillos (military/politically strong men) that ruled through oppression, military force and personal charisma. No representative/democratic government even when Benito Juarez ruled.
Economic Backwardness Only a small set of resources Required loads of slaves/cheap labor Plantation agriculture Profit only benefited the elites and foreign investors, though most of the work was done by poor peasants
Social Effects Indians and blacks were treated with informal prejudice Huge gap between the rich and the poor that kept growing. 1846-1848 Mexican American War, the U.S. gained Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California In the 1860’s Napoleon put a Habsburg emperor. Maximilian as the ruler of Mexico “Dollar Diplomacy”, Britain and the U.S. had a hand in LA economies. 1889-Pan American Union, 1898 Spanish American War, Early 1900’s the Panama Canal, all of these made the U.S. have a dominant influence in Latin America.
Conclusion of Revolutions Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile gave women education and extended their rights. In Chile there was law and medical degrees Latin American population soared as immigration came from Europe and Asia Latin America became a diverse social and ethnic mix Mita System which was a labor system in which native Americans enslaved other Native Americans and forced them for work. Encomienda System which was a labor system in which Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the slaves had to pay tributes to the conquistadors.
American Industrialization • Start of Industrialization • War of 1812- forced the country to uses its own resources • Lowell, Massachusetts, had become a booming manufacturing center; model for other such towns • Government gave lands to build the railroad • Government promoted engineering and scientific education • Had immigrant laborers
Key Aspects • Allowed Trade • Railroads encouraged trade across the country • Increased amounts of natural resources (coal, oil, iron) • Encouraged Trade • Entrepreneurs bought into the railroad system • Government promoted engineering and scientific education
Social Effects • Before Movements • Thousands of workers, mainly young single women, went from their rural homes to work as mill girls in factory towns • The mill girls work over 12 hours a day and 6 days a week for decent wages • Factories had horrible conditions • If an accident happened in the factories, the government/company was not responsible • After Movements • Labor movements- long hours, not enough pay, no benefits • Top workers were rewarded with bonuses and generous vacations • Better conditions in factories and better benefits • Pay increased
Important Contributions • Events • 1813- Francis Cabot and four other investors revolutionized the American Textile industry • Their weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts, earned the partners enough money to fund a larger operation in another Massachusetts town • Railroads- increase in trade brought wealth • Starting of corporations • People • Samuel Slater- built a spinning wheel in America • Moses Brown- opened first factory in the United States to house Slater’s machines in Pawtucket, Rhode Island • Eli Whitney- the cotton gin
European Industrialization • Start of Industrialization • It began in England in the 1780s. • Steam engine: mining and textiles • Enclosure acts- favored the wealthy landowners, which fenced off large amounts of farmland that had once been common property. This forced the farmers off their land and into the cities. • Environmental factors: deforestation, necessity of coal • Excellent road and canal systems • Capitalism became the dominant economic system
Social Effects • City Effects • Middle class (bourgeoisie): benefited greatly • Working class (proletariat): expanded in size, took the greatest hit, poorly treated • Child Labor was common • Countryside Effects • Social divisions between farmers and poor agricultural laborers • Serfdom was intact till 1861 in Russia • After 1848 Revolutions • Improvements in healthcare and benefits • Population growth and urbanization occurred once the people had more benefits • Due to the urbanization, many diseases were introduced
Domestic Effects • Effects on Women • Poor women began to work outside the home • Allowed single women a way to get out of their parents house • Single or unmarried women started to work outside of the home in factories • Lower class and middle class women worked • As the increases of wages-less women could work
Important Events • Crop rotation- in which farmers rotated crops in order to put nutrients back into the soil that the previous crop had taken out of the land • Breeding of the best sheep- allowed the lambs to become larger in size • Textile industry spread to wool, linen, and cotton • Factories- where the large and expensive machines were housed and manufactured goods were made • First steam engine- 1705- used with mining- was expensive to run • Turnpikes- new roads that had tollgates to pay taxes • Railroad locomotive- 1820 • Railroad that ran 27 miles from the Yorkshire coalfields to the port of Stockton on the North Sea (1825) • Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened in 1830
Important People • JethroTull- seed drill 1701- allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths • James Hargreaves- spinning jenny- increased the output of spinners (helped keep pace with the weavers) • John Kay- flying shuttle- speedily carried threads of yarn back and forth when the weaver pulled a handle (increased the productivity of weavers) • Richard Arkwright- water frame 1796- used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels • Samuel Crompton- spinning mule 1779- made thread stronger, finer, and more consistent that earlier spinning machines • Edmund Cartwright- power loom 1787- sped up weaving • James Watt (mathematical instrument maker of Glasgow in Scotland)-Matthew Boulton- built better engines • The Rocket- designed by Stephenson and his son- hauled 13 ton load at a sped over 24 miles per hour-
Chinese Industrialization Government Qing Dynasty began to decline Government became corrupted Economy worsened Population growth became rapid Discontent with government and bad economic conditions led to revolts.
Chinese Foreign Trade China was too strong too capture and it had its advantage with trade. Europeans could only trade with small designated ports and cities in China Chinese had a tiny selection of Western goods Chinese sold the nations of the West: silks, porcelain, the most profitable was tea. China was paid back in silver bullion’s Westerners complained and protested about the little trade but China replied with “Your country has nothing we need.”
The Opium Trade Clever ways of the Europeans (British) to get to Chinese markets using the drug: Opium. Chinese of all classes became addicted These trades were illegal, and instead of silver bullion’s flowing into China, they were flowing out. Economic productivity decreased because farmers and workers became too addicted for work. 1839- China responded with a navy blockade of Canton which was a major trading port.
Opium Wars Britain and China (1839-1842) British easily won, because China thought is what more developed then Westerners. Treaty of Nanking in which the government had to open up 5 different trading ports, and they had to lower the tariffs on British goods This led to the second Opium War or “Arrow War” From 1858-1860, treaties made the Opium trade legal, they opened more Chinese ports to foreign trade, and they gave great powers to Portuguese, French, Americans, British, and Russians.
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) Started by Hong Xiugan, he failed his civil service exam , and began to have visions of Heavenly Kingdom of Supreme Peace, “Taiping” 1850 Hong began his rebellion 1853 Taiping rebels captured Nanjing Hong and rulers controlled 1/3 of China 1860 Rebellion began to wane as the foreign influence “Ever Victorious Army” jumped in. 1864 Hong committed suicide and the Taiping leaders were executed.
Dowager Empress Cixi/ Foreign Influence She ruled China from 1878-1908 Became a major figure in the Qing’s court Qing rule became more oppressive with her Opposed reforms “pro-Western Treason” Sino Japanese War 1894-1895 1898 United States had Open Door Policy Germany and Italy pushed for a greater share of Chinese territory
Missionaries 1800-1900’s, Protestant and Catholic clergy went to China to spread Christianity and Western languages Eroded traditional Chinese Culture Brought Scientific and technological knowledge: treated diseases and ailments, medicine, eliminated foot binding Imperialism mixed the legacy of positive and negative impact of missionaries.
Boxer Rebellion Rage of the Chinese “Boxers” rebels who were against the foreigners in Beijing Rebels attacked foreign residents, and besieged foreign legations Rebellion was put down by foreign troops Foreigners reacted by burning down temples, and forcing the Qing government to pay a heavy financial penalty.
Decline of the Qing 1905, even Cixi agreed for reforms from all the chaos and disruption, and the formation of a constitution 1908, Cixi died and in 1910 local assemblies, and elections for national assemblies 1911 Qing regime collapsed 1912 Chinese Republic was formed Nationalist party, Kuomintang was formed by China’s leader from 1866-1925.
Politically Effects Serfs had no political power and they were stuck in villages until they paid for the land that they were given too. Tsar had the nobles as best ranked because they were the most reliable political ally and the source of most bureaucrats Redemption money from serfs went to aristocracy; Local government became essential because nobles did not rule the peasantry Recruitment; Became a debtor nation with laxed discipline and military efficiency 1870;s, Alexander II pulled back from reforms, for fear of too much change 1881, Alexander II was assassinated through terrorism; Marxist doctrines spread, and Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin was the most active Lenin insisted on revolutionary cells that maintained doctrinal purity; Bolsheviks arose who were Russian Marxists Tsarist regime put brutal police repression but created the Duma which remained ineffective
Economical and Intellectual Effects Increase uses of potatoes 1880's Tran-Siberian railroad, which helped expand Russia's iron and coal sectors, and exports of grain to the West. Metal working shops and improved banking systems Kulaks, were formed which helped with agricultural production New law codes cut traditional punishments Tsar created Zemstroes, local political councils that have a say in Roads, schools, and regional policies. State sponsored basic education Metallurgy and textile plants Modern factories in Moscow, St. Petersburg Gregor Mendel established theory of peas Russian folk tales and music/Romantic traditions Government encouraged Westerners to build factories based on advanced technology
Religious/Social Christianity Catholic Church and Enlightenment thinkers Entertainment rather than religion Emancipation of serfs in 1861, which allowed for serfs to get majority of the land, had a tight grip on tsarist state and created a large urban labor force. Peasant uprisings from famines, burned records of what the owed, they attacked the landlords and state officials but remained loyal to Tsar Women had access to higher education and upper classes took occupations in medicine Business people and professionals were independent to state initiatives, but seek ed fuller political voice, freedom in school and press, and liberal reforms Intellectuals entered bureaucracy and business life Anarchists developed Intelligentsia were articulate intellectuals who became active and wanted political freedom, deep social reforms, but maintained different culture than the West, attacked Russian institution and built a new society. Persecution of large Jewish minority through pogroms Working class unrest grew, urban rural class grew, remained a traditional peasant society.
Japan Industrialization • Tokugawa Shogunate • 1750’s Tokugawa Clan ruled (Shogunate) • Shogun was the emperor who had supreme authority • After the shogun come the Samurai class who were the warrior aristocracy • Shoguns centralized Japan, and made it a single country at peace • Dictatorial, restricted social mobility, and allowed few personal freedoms • Made Japan isolated except for the relations with Japan
Modernization • Partial • Infrastructure: Roads, Canals and ports • 1700’s-1800’s began to modernize economically and socially • Steady population growth • Rationalizing of agricultural practice • Proto industrialization • Trade, commerce, manufacturing • Scientific and technological advances from the West • Merchant class became wealthy and the middle class. • Problems • Decreased power of traditional aristocracy • Foreign learning, Social economic increase of merchant class • Samurai class wanted to preserve the state’s monopoly on ownership of and ability of gunpowder weaponry
Meji • Sat-Cho Alliance was the lead in January 1868 there was a military uprising and the overthrow of Shogun: Yoshinbu • 1867, emperor Meji ruled • As Emperor • Meji abolished feudalism in 1871, and allowed for no hereditary privileges. • Samurai class were forbidden to wear swords which showed their authority • Civil code of 1898 • Constitution of 1890:Diet parliament • Less repressive and restrictive then the Tokugawa regime but hardly representative
Industrialization • Meji sent young members of upper class to visit and study Europe and America for engineering, economics, and military science • 1870 Ministry of Industry • State banks, railroads, steamships, new ports, canals • Zaibatsu, huge corporations • Large scale industry and private enterprise • Goods: Tea, silks, weaponry and sakes • For farmers the taxes increased and there were oppressive laws and low working conditions for low classes
Social Class Transformation • Old elites still had power but political positions were dependent on merit and competence • Civil service examination system • Regional governments were given to prefects • Merchants increased in size and power • 1872-Tax System carried national education system • Japanese adopted Western dressing, fashions, manners, calendar and metric system • Population sky rocketed.
Militarism and Imperialism • Became militaristic • Desire for empire building in the 1800’s-1900’s • State Shintoism: Revival of Japan’s ancient faith that had Japanese Superiority, and believed that the emperor was the descendant of god • Desire for markets for industrial goods but it really needed raw materials • 1876 Japanese forced Korean ports to trade • 1879 Ryukyu Island was taking away from China • 1880’s-1890’s there became a steamship navy and a well equipped and trained army • 1894 Sino-Japanese war, Japan won and occupied Korea and Taiwan • 1904-1905, Russo Japanese war, Japan annexed Liatung Peninsula, Southern half of Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands, and there was a Japanese influence in Manchuria • The Russo-Japanese War was the beginning of the decreased power of Europe because a Western nation: Russia fell to Japan, this later foreshadows the destruction of Europe.
Works Cited • Barrons; History Book • Google Images • Photostock.com