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Dracunculus medinesis: The Most Cunning Parasite from an Immunological Perspective PowerPoint Presentation
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Dracunculus medinesis: The Most Cunning Parasite from an Immunological Perspective

Dracunculus medinesis: The Most Cunning Parasite from an Immunological Perspective

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Dracunculus medinesis: The Most Cunning Parasite from an Immunological Perspective

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  1. Dracunculus medinesis:The Most Cunning Parasite from an Immunological Perspective By: Tiffany Walsh November 10, 2005

  2. Dracunculus medinensis • Phylum: NEMATODA • CLASS: SECERNENTEA • ORDER: SPIRURIDA • FAMILY: DRACUNCULIDAE • Dracunculus medinensis • Common name: Guinea worm, medina worm, serpent worm

  3. Historical: • Thought to be referred to in a book written in Egypt 3,500 years ago (the Ebers' Papyrus). • Probably the "fiery serpent" referred to in the Bible. • Also may be the coiled serpents on the "Caduceus" the symbol of a physician.

  4. Dracunculus medinensis • Hosts: Humans • Distribution: Asia, Africa, Indonesia, Fiji, Brazil • Mostly in Sudan as of 2004.

  5. Map-2002

  6. What do they LOOK like?

  7. Life Cycle • Adult females in subcutaneous tissues of the legs and arms. • Blister forms over nematode. Breaks when exposed to water. • Nematode uterus ruptures and discharges first stage juveniles into the water (ovoviviparous). • Juveniles ingested by copepod (intermediate host, 2 molts within copepod). • Copepod swallowed by human. • Juveniles migrate via lymph system. • Develop to adults in subcutaneous tissues.

  8. Symptoms/Pathogenicity • None until blister forms and toxic fluids result in - • a rash accompanied by severe itching • nausea • vomiting • diarrhea • dizziness. • Secondary bacterial infections of opening are possible. • There may be later symptoms--fibrosis of the skin, muscles, tendons and joints ( may interfere with locomotion or use of limbs).

  9. Future Management • Filter or boil water, or treat with chlorine to kill intermediate host. • Avoid bathing or wading in drinking water. • Remove worms by extraction or with surgery. • Drug therapy. • Video