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Language. Three Minute Review. INTELLIGENCE history of testing and intelligence tests how to make a proper test (valid, reliable, standardized) verbal vs. performance subtests Spearman factor analysis logic one main factor (g) + specific factors (s’s)

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  1. Language

  2. Three Minute Review • INTELLIGENCE • history of testing and intelligence tests • how to make a proper test (valid, reliable, standardized) • verbal vs. performance subtests • Spearman • factor analysis logic • one main factor (g) + specific factors (s’s) • could the “g-spot” be in lateral prefrontal cortex • Cattell • two main factors • fluid intelligence • crystallized intelligence • validity of IQ tests • not bad (~.4), not great

  3. Other types of intelligence • savants • Gardner -- multiple intelligences • Goleman -- emotional intelligence • Heredity of intelligence • strong genetic component • some environmental component • Flynn effect • IQ has increased over time • genes haven’t changed that quickly -- what has? • Bad question: Is a person’s intelligence due to genes or environment? • Better question: Are differences in people’s intelligence due to differences in genes or differences in environment?

  4. Test Yourself • Rashi is given several intelligence tests and is found to do well above average on most areas, including mathematical, verbal, and spatial abilities. Spearman would attribute Rashi's high performance across this variety of tests to: • g (general intelligence). • s (specific ability). • fluid intelligence. • crystallized intelligence. • mental age.

  5. Assembling Sounds • hard to identify word transitions in speech • speech recognition systems require slow, paused speech • misunderstandings • mondegreens • “It’s a doggy-dog world” • “Our father wishart in heaven; Harold be thy name” • Jimi Hendrix • “’scuse me while I kiss this guy” • Red Hot Chili Peppers • “Wait for the shed; it’s a lonely view”? • Flight 301 “hijack” Sounds  phonemesmorphemes  words  sentences  meaning

  6. Assembling Words Sounds phonemes  morphemes  words sentences  meaning (Gray, Fig 11.9, p. 436) • Morpheme vs. word? • The boy-s kick-ed the ball

  7. Assembling Meaning Sounds  phonemes  morphemes  words  sentences  meaning Grammar • the rules of language • phonology -- assembling sounds • morphology -- combining word parts • “The boy hit the ball” vs. “The boy hitted the ball” • syntax -- word order • “The boy hit the ball” vs. “The ball hit the boy” • Semantics • meaning • “The boy hit the ball” vs. “The boy went to the ball” • Deep Meaning • the underlying ideas based on context and culture • She: “I am leaving you.” • He: “Who is he?”

  8. Ambiguous Phrasing

  9. When things go wrong • Translation errors based on alternative word meanings • In a Bangkok dry cleaner's • "Drop your trousers here for best results." • Outside a Paris dress shop • "Dresses for street walking." • In an Acapulco hotel • "The manager has personally passed all the water served here." • Headlines with noun/verb ambiguity • British Left Waffles on Falklands • Stud Tires Out • Chou Remains Cremated • Teacher Strikes Idle Kids • Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim • Hershey Bars Protest • Deer Kill 130,000 • Translation software • “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.” translated into Russian became “The vodka is good but the meat is rotten.”

  10. Mentalese • Is language the basis of thought? • Do words that exist in other languages allow new concepts? • “Schadenfreude” (German, damage + joy) = experiencing pleasure at someone else’s misfortune • Do our words bias our thoughts? • stewardess vs. flight attendant • fire man vs. fire fighter • chairman vs. chair or chairperson • Do “Eskimos” (Inuit) really have so many (e.g., 300) words for snow? Linguistic Relativity (Sapir & Whorf) • Whorf’s problem with “empty” oil containers • culture, through language affects the way we think • “another language, another soul”

  11. Language in the Brain Broca’s aphasia • follows damage to left frontal lobe • problems generating speech • not a problem moving mouth muscles • often accompanied by right hemiparesis • why? The brain of Broca’s patient “Tan” Paul Broca

  12. Broca’s Area Wernicke’s aphasia • occurs with left hemisphere damage • problems with language comprehension • fluent nonsense visual cortex Wernicke’s area (language comprehension) Broca’s area (language generation) motor cortex (mouth, lips tongue) auditory cortex

  13. Nonverbal Communication

  14. What is nonverbal communication? • interpersonal distance • physical touch • facial expression • eye contact • body posture and movement • gestures • tone of voice • dress

  15. Thin Slices of Behavior • subjects watched soundless video clips of teaching assistant for 2, 5 or 10 seconds • students rated how accepting, empathic, optimistic, professional, or supportive the teacher seemed • correlation with teaching ratings of students in the instructor’s class: .76

  16. Physical Space • depends on how well you know the other person • depends on situation (e.g., elevator, subway) • larger for pairs with status difference than for peers • distance is set by higher status person • smaller for women than men

  17. Physical Space • need more space face-to-face than back-to-back • how to freak people out in an elevator (or at a urinal)

  18. Where do we touch each other?

  19. Facial Expressions • In this picture, an experienced flight attendant demonstrates a facial expression she uses at work. Is she performing genuine warmth, or is it concealed irritation? a. Genuine Warmth b. Concealed Irritation Fake vs. “zygomatic” smiles

  20. Eye Contact • indicates attentiveness, credibility • conveys intensity of feelings • couples in love • makes people more likeable • higher tips • when does a gaze become a stare? • aggressive, causes discomfort • culturally specific • Asians < Americans < Arabs • higher status individuals make more eye contact, lower status individuals look away more • more common in women (but confounded with status)

  21. Body Language • twitching = nervousness • open posture (e.g., arms open) • closed posture (e.g., arms crossed) • leaning toward you = positive attitude • leaning back = negative attitude or defensiveness • higher status person • more open posture Who just won the basketball game?

  22. Gesturing while on the phone Why do you gesture when no one is watching?

  23. Evolution of Language? One theory (Giacomo Rizzolatti) • through evolution, a brain area in left frontal cortex (F5 in monkey; Broca’s in human) becomes specialized for: • own hand actions’ • others hand actions • others’ gestures • others’ verbal communication • mirror neurons • “monkey see, monkey do”

  24. Interactional Synchrony:congruent posture, congruent minds

  25. Intonation • “I really enjoyed myself!” • “I really enjoyed myself!” • “I really enjoyed myself!” • sarcasm • rapid speech -- happy, frightened or nervous • slow speech = uncertainty, emphasis • loud speech = anger • high pitch = anxiety • e-mail emoticons :)

  26. Detecting Deception “I did not have sexual relations with <pause, gaze averted> that woman, Ms. Lewinsky.”

  27. Accuracy at Lie Detection

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